GLOSSARY NOTES

 1. Dictionary  definitions  are  edited  entries   { JBY emendations } from WP Random-House  "Webster's  Electronic Dictionary" (RH) or Oxford University Press  "Concise Electronic Dictionary"   (OUP)  [ Etymology from RH or OUP ] Merriam-Webster Dictionary OnLine -  Based  on  Merriam-Webster's Collegiate(R) Dictionary,  Tenth Edition. (MW)    Garth Kemerling's A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names.        < E1:Parkinson:2601 > The   definitions   as  given  in  the  dictionaries  are  the  everyday language usages, and are generally synonyms or properties of the word {x = x, an identity}—not the nature  {cause} thereof {x = y; where y = posited cause}. Spinoza attempts to find the cause.                           ^  E1:Parkinson:2602, E3:Hampshire:138.   "But  my  purpose  is  to explain, not the meaning of  words  {by their properties},  but  the  nature  of  things  {by their causes, I:2.5c}." {Examples: °EMOTION; °SORROW—°JOY;  °FAITH; °HATE—°LOVE;.  More examples.}  < E1:Parkinson:2601 >  The  following  note  is  very  important in understanding Spinoza's insights. Spinoza's Religion 2. Fully  CAPITALIZED  words  do not necessarily have their everyday meaning; they are precisely defined terms, much like letting x=y (where y is the cause by hypothesis). If I fatally deviate from these precise definitions, the logical structure collapses (D:2.12), Please call me to account at josephb@yesselman.com.    This capitalization is a JBY convention; not  Spinoza's.   A degree sign (°) indicates that the term constantly varies in degree when it is a mode, but not when it is an  attribute. Calculus:Fig.3, Calculus:4.4. The dictionary definitions do not  stress  such variations.  Note 1, Calculus:Fig.1(a), Calculus:Fig.1(b), E1:XIII:54, E1:XV(40):58  °P symbolizes the variation in degree of Perpetuation  °PERPETUATION and °PERFECTION are equivalent terms.  Calculus:Table 1, Calculus:Fig.3, Varies, E3:XI(2)Note:138, I:Table 1. ° FAITH faith  D:1.26b  D:2.10  Calculus:Fig.1  D:1.37  I:1.3b  I:1.4b  D:1.30  DefEmo   Includes  Quibble D:1.14 James 3. Symbols: { -- }   Indicates a JBY comment or statement.  [ -- ]   Indicates a Curley's translation or comment.  ] -- [   Indicates a Shirley's translation or comment.  <-->  Indicates a Parkinson's translation or comment.   >--<  Indicates a De Dijn's translation or comment.  LINKS. Bk.XIB:22377. 4. Bibliography and Citation Abbreviations: Online Book-Ordering for Listed Books:     Click Book or ISBN No. for an Amazon.com order form.      Where available, click on book title to sample book.      Booksellers: Abebooks, Albris.      See this Interesting Canadian library source.     I receive commissions on orders placed with Amazon.   All commissions received are turned over to:       North American Spinoza Society.       Executive Secretary: Steven Barbone   Conjecture:   It will be a happy day when all books are  electronically published, and referenced page numbers given herein immediately available.  Book I – Benedict de Spinoza On the Improvement of   the Understanding,  The Ethics - Parts I , II , III , IV , V   and Correspondence. Unabridged Elwes 1883 translations (based on Bruder's 1843 Latin Text,) are as published in Dover Publications, 1951; ISBN 048620250X.  That it is still in print is a testament to the enduring relevance of many of its parts. On  the  Improvement  of  the  Understanding (TEI): TEI:[Curley's Para. #  from Bk.III: Sentence #, if given]:                  Book I Page # TEI:[1:xx]:3 The Ethics: Part #: Axiom, Definition, or Proposition # (Sentence #, if given):Book I Page #, if given. E1:D.VI(xx):45   or   1P28. Correspondence:        Letter #: Book I Page #, Footnote or Endnote # L49(43):364x   Elwes's Letter Numbering is as found in the Opera Posthuma.  Letter Numbers in parenthesis are as arranged by Van Vloten  and are those used in Book XIII.  Bk.I:2751, EL:JBY Endnotes.    All of my Spinoza Works come from Book I or Book II. Page numbers of these books are given on the electronic version so that they may be correlated with the book for reference, editing or correcting scanning errors. Please e-mail me of scanning errors at: josephb@yesselman.com. The Books I & II page numbers (when given) for citations, afford the convenience of using the books for the citations while keeping the screen focused on the source. Book II  –   Benedict de Spinoza  A  Theologico-Political  Treatise, A Political Treatise, and Elwes's Introduction. Unabridged Elwes 1883 translations (based on Bruder's 1843 Latin Text) are as published in Dover Publications 1951, ISBN 0486202496.    That it is still in print is a testament to the enduring relevance of many of its parts. For sub-title of TTP see Book XI:46.  For Title Page of "A Political Treatise" see Book II:279.  A Theologico-Political Treatise (TTP) Part #: Chapter # (Sentence #): Book II Page # TTP3:XIII(7):176 A Political Treatise (TP) Part #: Chapter #: Paragraph #: Sentence #, if given. Book II Page #, if given. TP1:(1:4:2):288 Elwes' Introduction:[Para. # ]:Book II Page # EL:[37]:xxii Book III – Herman De Dijn's Spinoza: The Way of   Wisdom; Purdue Univ. Press; ISBN: 1557530823.  The translation of Spinoza's On the Improvement of  the  Understanding is from Edwin Curley's Book VIII.   Book III: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.III:19x  This book is a valuable commentary on Spinoza's "Treatise on the Emendation of the Intellect" ( Book I ). It has the Gebhardt Latin text and Curley's English translation on facing pages.   It describes in great detail Spinoza's Method for acquiring Wisdom. 4. Cont. Book IV  (7 Volumes) – The  Pentateuch;  translated &  explained (1873) by Rabbi   Samsom Raphael Hirsch  (1808-1888). Translated and Published by Isaac Levy.  237 Stoke Newington Church St. London N.16, England,  Copyright 1959.  Judaica Press, Brooklyn, NY.  (718) 972-6000; ISBN 0910818126.  Hirsch's   non-conventional    translations   and   profound   Hebrew etymologically-based commentary trigger insights. His rationalistic  concepts  of   the  Oneness  of  G-D,   puts  him  in  Spinoza's  and  Einstein's  class.   Get  behind  the  anthropomorphisms  and  find Deus sive Natura.     There is much you will not agree with; or even (if you are a Christian or Non-Orthodox Jew) be turned-off by. However,  partake of the work as you would a pomegranate; relish the flesh, but spit-out the pits.      Use  with  Strong, Gesenius  and  Bible Works's. From Amazon.com Book Reviews.  oedipus1@aol.com from New York, New York, USA , 11/06/97, rating=10: Hirsch's commentary provides illuminating  insights  from the Oral Law to the Shulchan Aruch.  Hirsch Pentateuch: Biblical Book, Chapter: Verse HirPent: Gen 43:14 4. Cont. Book V ( 2 Volumes) – The Psalms  translated  &  commentary (1882) by Rabbi Samsom Raphael Hirsch.  Translated into English by Gertrude Hirschler.  Copyright 1960 by Philipp Feldheim, Inc., New York, NY.  Eichler's Book Store, Brooklyn, NY, (718)258-7643.   See Book IV comments above.   Volume 1 - Psalms   1 to 72. Volume 2 - Psalms 73 to 150. Hirsch Psalms:Vol. #:Psalm #:Verse HirPs:1:19:10 or HirPsalm:1:19:10 Psalm 1:1:1 4. Cont. Book VI – H.W.F. Gesenius's Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the {Hebrew Bible}; Baker Books, 1997; ISDN: 0801037360.  Numerically Coded to Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.                       Gesenius:Page Number           Ges:19    The  coding  system  allows  the  Bible  student without a knowledge of Hebrew  to  use  this  classic  work  to  find  the  precise meaning and  connotations of the Hebrew or Aramaic word behind the English word being  studied.  Being  a  lexicon, its entries are more exhaustive than are Strong's. Study roots and related words of the 'word'–example the word 'pity' . 4. Cont. Book VII – "Baruch Spinoza; The Ethics: Treatise on the  Emendation of the Intellect and Selected Letters"; Translated by Samuel Shirley; Edited, with Introductions, by Seymour Feldman; Hackett Publishing Company,1992; ISBN: 0872201309.   Get the hardcover; my paperback fell apart.  Especially see Deus, Cause, Idea.  Book VII: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.VII:19x 4. Cont. Book VIII (Volume 1) – The Collected Works of Spinoza;  Edited and Translated by Edwin Curley; 1985; Princeton  University  Press; (609)883-1759; ISBN: 0691072221.  Available in a CD-ROM from IntLex's Past Master Series; The Continental Rationalists, Spinoza, Descartes, & Leibniz.    I  have added Curley's TEI Paragraph Numbers (which he took from Bruder; Book VIII, Page 6)  to  the Elwes translation. This I hope, will facilitate translation comparisons. If this is the same Bruder, strange Elwes  did not use the Paragraph Numbers, unless Elwes' copy had no such numbers.  Book VIII: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.VIII:19x Book IX – James Strong  Strong's Exhaustive Con- cordance; Baker Books, 1997;  ISBN: 0801081084    Includes Dictionaries of Hebrew and Greek words (Strong Numbers). Gesenius, Book VI, has more exhaustive Hebrew entries which lead to more insights. Study root and related words of the 'word'–example, the word 'pity'. Also  may  be  found  in  CD  "Bible Works for Windows" with complete Christian and Hebrew Bibles - Bible Works.  I  highly  recommend  this  CD;  I  find  it  indispensable.  Strong: Hebrew or Greek Word # Strong:3519    Translations are combined with Bk.VI. Book X – William James Pragmatism; Hackett Publishing Co., 1981;  ISBN: 0915145057.  Especially see "verbal quibble , cash (effective) value."  Pragmatism: Lecture II - What Pragmatism Means   Book X: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.X:19x Book XI – Baruch Spinoza; Tractatus-Theologico- Politicus Second Edition; Translated by Samuel Shirley;  Introduction by Brad S. Gregory; Brill Paperbacks,  ISBN: 9004095500.  I express my appreciation and thanks to Mr. Shirley, Mr. Gregory,  and Brill Paperbacks for their kind permission to make extensive  use of the footnotes.    Book XI: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.XI:19x Book XIA  –  Spinoza,  Liberalism,  and  the  Question of Jewish Identity; Steven B. Smith; Yale University Press, 1997; ISBN: 0300076657. Book XIA: Page #, Endnote # Bk.XIA:19x Book XIB  – Spinoza  And The Rise Of Liberalism; Lewis S. Feuer, 1958; Transaction Books, 1987; ISBN: 0887387012. Many allusions to Sigmund Freud, p.313. Book XIB: Page #, Endnote # Bk.XIB:19x Book XII – Spinoza: His Life and Philosophy by Frederick Pollock; Reprint Edition; Published by Irvington Publishing; Publication date: June 1980; ISBN: 0697000559.    Originally published in 1880; this book is a Spinoza standard.  EL:Feuer:11651.  Book XII: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.XII:19x 4. Cont. Book XIII – Spinoza: The Letters; Translated by Samuel Shirley; Introduction and Notes  by Steven Barbone, Lee  Rice, and Jacob Adler.  Hackett Publishing Company, Inc.  Copyright 1995; ISBN: 0872202755.   I recommend reading the Letters in Book XIII because of its Introduction and informative footnotes. Letter # : Book XIII Page # , Footnote or Endnote # L25(78):347x.     Book XIII Lettter Numbering (shown in green in parenthesis)  are  as  arranged according to date in Van Vloten's edition.   See Bk.I:2751. Book XIV – The Philosophy of Spinoza by Harry A. Wolfson Harvard; University Press; Copyright date: 1934;  Published September 1958; Library of Congress Catalog No. 58-11928; Reprint edition 1983, ISBN: 0674665953.   This book is an indispensable standard in Spinoza literature.  The Preface alone is worth the "price-of-admission".  EL:Feuer:11651—E5:Wolfson:2:330, Bk.XIV:2:351.  Wolfson's  Outline of Spinoza's "The Ethics".                Book XIV:Volume Number:Page #, Footnote or Endnote #           Bk.XIV:1:19x Book XV – Benedict de Spinoza The Ethics - Parts I, II, III, IV, V and On the Improvement of the Understanding.  Links  are  to  Book 1  for  translation  comparisons.  Translated by Andrew Boyle 1910 (based on Bruder's 1843 Latin Text); Revised by G. H. R. Parkinson 1993; with an Introduction and Notes by G. H. R. Parkinson.  Everyman Paperback Classics; ISBN: 0460873474.   I  recommend  Book  XV  for  its informative Introduction, endnotes, and translations using less archaic terms—especially the endnotes. Endnote example: < E1:Parkinson:2601 >. Book XV: Page #, Footnote or Endnote # Bk.XV:19x. Book XVI – Ronald W. Clark Einstein - The Life and Times. 1947; reprinted by Avon Books, 1971; ISBN: 038001159X.    Book XVI: Page # Bk.XVI:19. Book XVII – Stephen Hawking A Brief History of Time.  A Bantam Book;  ISBN: 0553380168.  Big Bang.    Book XVII: Page # Bk.XVII:19. Book XVIII  –  A Study of Spinoza's Ethics;  Jonathan Bennett; Hackett Publishing Company, 1984;  ISBN: 0915145839.   For abbreviations see Bk.XVIII:3.  Often critical of, and attempts to psycho-analyse Spinoza.  From backcover—             "I think that this is the most exciting book on Spinoza                         that I have read for a long time.             It is written with great intelligence, lucidity, and verve,           and although often highly critical it is not merely negative.             I have no doubt that scholars will want to argue . . .         a stimulating book, which will make its readers think."                                       G. H. R. PARKINSON, Reading University.                                        Gebhardt's Spinoza Opera (4 vols.  1925). Book XVIII: Page #, Volume #/Page #/Line #. Bk.XVIII:33II/280/13.        or Book XVIII: Page #, Part # 5, Proposition P1; or Footnote #.  Bk.XVIII:335p1. Book XIX – Expressionism in Philosophy: Spinoza;  Gilles Deleuze; Translated from the French by Martin Joughin; Zone Books, 1990; ISBN: 0942299515.  Book XIX: Page #, Endnote # (Deleuse) or letter (Joughin). Bk.XIX:191,a. Book XX –  Steven M. Nadler  Spinoza - A Life;  Cambridge University Press 1999; ISBN: 0521552109.    Book XX: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XX:191. See Nadler's entry in "Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Book XXI –  Kenneth R. Miller Finding Darwin's God;  Cliff Street Books, 1999; ISBN: 0060175931.    Book XXI: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXI:191. Change  Miller's  definition  of  God  (Pg. 222)  from the traditional Judaic-Christian-Islam transcendent God  to Spinoza's immanent G-D and the book could be titled "Finding Spinoza's G-D" or even  "Finding Einstein's G-D",  and possibly  "Finding Darwin's G-D".   See Religion and Grace.  Book XXII - "The Book of G-D" by Baruch Spinoza as published by Philological Library, Inc.; edited and with an Introduction by Dagobert D. Runes. The translation of the Short Treatise given was by Dr. A Wolf.   I conjecture that Runes heavily edited Wolf''s translation for it differs (briefer and rearranged) from Book XXIII. Compare the Table of Contents of the two books; Bk. XXII, XXIII.   Book XXIII - Spinoza: His Life and Treatise on God and Man; Translated and edited, with an Introduction and Commentary and a Life of Spinoza by A Wolf, M.A., D.Lit.,  D.Lit., and published in 1910 by Adam and Charles Black,  of London.     This book was reissued in 1963 by Russel & Russel, Inc. L. C. Catalog Card No: 63--15183. Book XXIV - Soncino Books of the Bible; Editor: Rev. Dr.Cohen, M.A., Ph.D., D.H.L. and Published by the Soncino Press LTD, London,1958; A fourteen volume set; books may be bought separately.   The Psalms - Commentary by Dr. Cohen. Isaiah - Commentary by Rev. Dr. Slotki. Micah - Commentary by Rev. Dr. Goldman. Book XXV - Spinoza Dictionary as published by Philological Library Inc.; edited and with an Introduction by Dagobert D. Runes; with a Forward by Albert Einstein; c.1951; reprinted by Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn., 1976; ISBN: 0837192935.   The book is out-of-print; but may be obtained used here, where I got my copy. Search for Author "Runes". Book XXVI - Antonio Damasio Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain; Harcourt, Inc, 2003; ISBN: 0151005575.          Damasio:170—biological Book XXVI: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXVI:191  or   Damasio:187 Book XXVII - Daniel C. Dennett Consciousness Explained; Little, Brown and Company 1991; ISBN: 0316180661.   As a Computer:433 Book XXVII: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXVII:191  or   Dennett:302 Book XXVIII - Joseph E. LeDoux Synaptic Self: How Our                                           Brains Become Who We Are. Penguin Books 2002;  ISBN: 0142001783.     ROM & RAM:178 Book XXVIII: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXVIII:191  or   LeDoux:302 Book XXIX - Joseph E. LeDoux The Emotional Brain: the              Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life";  Touchstone 1996; ISBN: 0684836599.    Functionalism:27, 28                            LeDoux96:281—Is Consciousness Computable? Book XXIX: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXIX:191  or   LeDoux96:19 Book XXX - Antonio Damasio Descartes Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain; Quill, 1994;  ISBN: 0380726475.                Damasio94:249—Descartes' Error Book XXX: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXX:191  or   Damasio94:19 Book XXXI - Antonio Damasio The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness; Harcourt, 1999; ISBN: 0151003696. Book XXXI: Page #, Endnote #. Bk.XXXI:191  or   Damasio99:19 For online-ordering of all listed books see Note 4. LT:L34(21):151 5. Tape 1 - The Teaching Company's Three part Philosophy of Religion; 18 cassetttes (36 lectures), 3 course guidebooks (CG1, CG2, & CG3), and 3 transcript books (TB1, TB2, & TB3); all by Professor James H. Hall, Ph.D.   Use to test any Religion's consistency and logic.  I have put Spinoza's Religion to the test: World Views, TB2:109, TB3:15, TB3:20, TB3:38, TB2:146, TB2:20.   Tape 2 - The Teaching Company's Biology and Human Behavior: The Neurological Origins of Individuality; 4 cassettes (8 lectures), Course Buidebook (CG1); all by Professor Robert Morris Sapolsky, Ph.D.  Tape 3 - The Teaching Company's God and Mankind: Comparative Religions; 4 cassettes (8 lectures), Course Buidebook (CG1); all by Professor Robert Oden, Ph.D.  Tape 4 - The Teaching Company's Einstein’s Relativity and the Quantum Revolution: Modern Physics for  Nonscientists; 12 cassetes (24 lectures), 2 course guidebooks (CG1 & CG2), and 2 transcript books (TB1 & TB2); all as taught by Prof. Richard Wolfson, Ph.D.   Tape 5 - The Teaching Company's Two part Particle Physics for Non-Physicists: A Tour of the Microcosmos; 12 cassetes (24 lectures), 2 course guidebooks (CG1 & CG2), and 2 transcript books (TB1 & TB2); all as taught by Professor Steven Pollock, Ph.D. I highly recommend these tapes. 6. Kindly send e-mail for clarification request,  disagreement, or suggestion for additions  to Glossary to josephb@yesselman.com 7. Suggestion:   Do not read this Glossary as you would  a  novel  but  rather  select a head-word or Topic and  then follow all its links in turn wherever they may lead.   You  will  then  be putting  hypertexting  to  its  fullest  and best advantage—the fuller discussion of a thread.  If you do not stick to one thread at a time, this Web Site  will be very convoluted, confusing, and an annoying maze.    If you prefer to read linearly, read these plain vanilla text versions, abridged versions, e-book versions, or best, study the printed book—book page numbers are given for most scanned books.  For further Topics to follow see Terry Neff 's "Topic Index".  Also for Spinoza's Ethics see a "Logical Index" prepared by Lancelot R. Fletcher: it helps to understand Spinoza's Definitions, Axioms, and Propositions if seen how they  are used later-on in the Work. The small print links to such later-on use. Durant's Story      EL:[3]:vi 8. The secret to understanding Spinoza is to POSIT (as a working hypothesis) "1D6 = ONE" — Synthesized.                          The Foundation Rock.                                TEI:[104]:38, JBYnote1.  Spinoza's  MOTIVE for everything he says, is to lay the  groundwork for teaching the "Organic interdependence  of Parts." Remember this and all his puzzling sayings,  for example G-D, become more, if not completely,  understandable.    Spinozistic insights in a nutshell:       1.  °Perpetuation and Conatus (ultimately PcM)     2.  °JOY.         3.  °LOVE.      4.  Self-interest and Enlightenment.          5.  Religion and °Peace-of-Mind.      6.  Organic Interdependence.      7.  Cash (effective) Value.  If  I  have  not  gotten  these  across,  I  have  failed  to  explain  Spinoza  or  to  achieve  my  Purpose. TEI:[16]:7 TEI:[38]:14  TEI:[49:3]:17  TEI:[105]:38    I:1.5a D:1.7  Meditate on.

SPINOZISTIC  GLOSSARY  &  INDEX

Abstractions: G-D, Deus, Being, ONE, J---vah, Allah, Buddha, Krishna, Jesus, Mary,                              Hampshire202, Language, Fences, Foundation Rock.

A picture is worth a thousand words (abstractions).

RH—n. 1. an abstract or general idea or term. 2. the act of considering something in terms of general qualities or characteristics, apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances. 6. the quality of being abstract.
[1540-50; < LL]

RH—1. thought of apart from concrete realities, specific objects, or actual instances: an abstract idea. 2. expressing a quality or characteristic apart from any specific object or instance: an abstract word like justice. 3. theoretical; not applied or practical. 4. difficult to understand; abstruse. 9. something that concentrates in itself the essential qualities of anything more extensive or more general.

[1400-50; late ME: withdrawn from worldly interests < ML abstractus, L: ptp. of abstrahere to drag away, divert = abs- ABS - + trahere to draw, pull; cf. TRACT 1]

RH— a  change  in  velocity,  the time rate of change of velocity
with respect to magnitude or direction;  the derivative of velocity
with respect to time.

OUP—  the  rate  of  change  of velocity measured in terms of a
unit of time.

I  use  °ACCELERATION  to  serve  as an analogy for °FAITH.
I:Table 1   Negative values are deceleration and "lack of faith."

Bk.XIV:1:xxiii.
Active, E3:I:130, Passive, E1:XXIX(8):68, E3:I(8):13, E3:III:135, E3:XI(2):138, E3:GN(2)N,

E4:XXIII:204, E4:XXVIII(2):205, E4:Ap.II:236, E5:IV(7):249, E5:XLII(1):270, EL:[54]:xxvi.

E3:Def.II:129   Bk.XIV:2:1931.

]are active [
I say that we act when anything takes place, either within            Active emotion
us  or  externally  to  us,  whereof  we  are  the  adequate
cause;  that  is (by the foregoing definition) when through       Hanpshire:135—affectus
our nature something takes  place  within us or externally
to  us, which can through our nature alone be clearly and
distinctly  understood  {PcM}.    { Example— Your  TV  is broken              Mark Twain
and  you  know  how  to  fix it;  and  do  or  do  not fix it based on other
priorities.  E3:GN:2n.

{Active—understanding and having Peace of Mind;
Passive—not understanding with loss of PcM.  Spinoza's Religion

Neff
Adequate - Inadequate, Idea, TEI:[29]:11, TEI:[35]:13, TEI:[73]:27,

E2:XXXIV:108, E3:I:130, E5:XVII(1):255,EL:[50]:xxvi, EL:[54]:xxvi, EL:[60]:xxix,

TTP2:Note 8, TEI:L64(60):395, Common Notions.

WikipediA, Introduction. Ridley's Altruism.
Altruism, D:1.35, Charity, Duty, ONE, Pity, D:1.8, D:1.33b, D:1.34a, D:1.35a, Sign Names,
E3:LIX(6):172, E2:Endnote 3, HirPent:Gn 43:14,
Mark TwainAltruism does not Exist,         Egoism,  Ayn RandDawkin's:546, Ridley:3,

Altruism never exists, except it be an act of illness. When you say
"I love you", it is (see  D:1.33c) a euphemism for "I need you, and         An unfaced truth.
the  more  or  less I need  you  the  more or less  will  I love you."         Dawkins2:Genes
That is why there are marriages; that is why there are divorces.

Substitute  the word 'need' for 'love' and you will understand 'love'
in its full dimensions. There is no such thing as altruism, except it            Mark Twain
be an act of illness. If the lung did not take its "take"; it would soon
die, leading to the death of the whole organism. You would not rely             organic
on a sick lung that does not use any of the blood it passes through
for  its  own use. The Law of Organisms requires interdependence.
derogatory                                                     Uzgalis - Hobbes
I hasten to add that this is not pejorative; but the Law of Organisms.      Ridley's Altruism
Example:  Even  MotherTeresa  fulfills   her  inner  need first  and           R. Hillel
then  those  she  aids,  second. That does not make her work any
less meritorious; the poor woman in Mark Twain's story was aided.         Mark Twain

Self-interest—"you  have  to give  to get;  you  have  to get to give"         Ayn Rand
is  the nature  of  organic  interdependenceAltruism implies  that
a person is not always part of G-D and has, at that time, no duties          Extinction
or obligations.

I have read "In all of history, no one ever washed a rented car," and       Dawkin's:546
I have added, except when the dirty car reflected on him.

E4:L:221

RH— the principle or practice of unselfish concern for the welfare
of  others  ( opposed to egoism ).  { I  believe  it  is,  by  and  large,
opposed to rationalism. }

[1850-55; others]

Neff , Bk.XIV:1:xiii, xv.
Attribute, I:1.4b, I:1.5b, Mode, Analogy,G–D, TTP3:XIII(16):176, Calculus:5:1,
E1:XVI:59,EL:[42, 43]:xxiii., Neff EL:L04(04):282, Bk.XIX:1612.

Bk.VII:234- Attribute—Essence of Substance:

In  its common meaning, this word indicates that which is
attributed  to, or predicated of, a subject; a quality of that
subject.  But  in  the  Ethics  Spinoza  uses  it almost in a
special  sense,  defining  it as that which the intellect per-

ceives  as  constituting  the essence of substance.   Now         TEI:[97]:36
since  substance  is  by definition infinite, it must have in-
finite attributes; but of these the human intellect perceives
only  two,  extension  and  thought.   That  is to say, what-     Synthesize
ever  we  perceive  as  real  must  come  under these two
headings, extension and thought.   { E2:I & E2:II:83.              Calculus:Fig.3

RH— a quality,  character,  characteristic, or property attributed
as  belonging  to a  person,  thing,  group,  etc.:  Sensitivity and
eyesight are attributes { In its common meaning }.

OUP— Spinoza's doctrine is that there is one infinite substance
of  which  extension  and  thought  are  attributes. { Sensitivity and
eyesight are Modes of Attributes. }

[1350-1400; allot, assign, attribute, classify]

WikipediA, Britannica
Axiom, I:1.3, Euclidean, Knowledge, I:1.4, I:1.6, I:1.7, D:1.4, D:2.2,
TEI:[38]:14, TEI:[93]:34, Ethics:Part 1: Ax. I to VII, Common Notion.

WikipediA,
°BEAUTY, I:1.2a , Calculus:Fig.1(b), °UGLYI:2.5c, EL:L15(32):290, E1:Shirley:609.

RH— {Positive values}   the  quality  present  in  a  person or thing
that   gives   intense   aesthetic  pleasure  or  deep  satisfaction;
advantage,  asset,  attraction,  feature,  good  thing,  excellence,
benefit,  grace,  boon;  attractiveness,  splendor,  resplendence,
magnificence, radiance. { Negative values } ugliness,repulsiveness,
unpleasantness;   disadvantage,  detraction,  shortcoming,  flaw.

[1225-75; fine]

WikipediA, Britannica,
°BELIEF, °FAITH, faith, Hypothesis, Religion, Mark Twain, William James,
Pragmatic, Cash Value,I:1.11ff, Awareness, °LOVE, °HATE,

TTP3:XIII(47):180

". . . . .  we  cannot,  therefore,  think  that  opinions  taken in   Garbage In, Garbage out.
themselves  without  respect  to  actions  are either pious or             Credulity,
impious,  but  must  maintain  that a man is pious or impious
in  his  beliefs  only  in  so  far  as  he  is  thereby  incited  to        Pragmatism
obedience,  or  derives  from  them license to sin and rebel."

From "How to Make our Ideas Clear" by Charles Peirce.

{Religions}
And what, then, is belief? It is the demi-cadence which closes         Mark Twain
a  musical  phrase in the symphony of our intellectual life. We           Credulity
have  seen  that  it  has just three properties: First, it is some-     {All try to achieve
thing  that  we are aware of; second, it appeases the irritation      PEACE OF MIND
of doubt; and, third, it involves the establishment in our nature     the basis of religion.}
of a rule of action, or, say for short, a habit.                           Psychology:[5]

{A  belief  (hypothesis)  in  its  varying  degrees,  can  be a guess,
a dogma, a hope, an intuition, a leap-of-faithBelief is to make an
hypothesis which then must pass the test of Cash Value—bringing
Peace of Mind (PcM, Religion).}

RH—something believed;  opinion; conviction; confidence in the
truth  or  existence  of something  not immediately susceptible to
rigorous proof;  confidence; faith; trust:  a religious creed or faith.
firm notion,  view,  theory,  persuasion;  conclusion;  assumption,
supposition, presumption, feeling, expectation, judgment, impres-
sion, hypothesis, deduction, inference, guess.  { Note the differences
in degree.}

[1150-1200; believe]

Neff, WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xxiv, xxv.
Blessedness, Salvation, °PcM, Religion, Serenity, Intellectual love of G-D, Loves G-D,

WikipediA,
BOREDOM, I:Table 2, I:1.1, I:1.6, I:1.10, D:1.19ff, D:1.21.

{BOREDOM is no change in °Perfection. I:2.5c
It marks the theoretical transition from JOY to SORROW and               Calculus:Fig.1(a)
vice versa.  Calculus:Fig. 2. }

RH— the  state  of being bored, tedium, ennui, dullness, monot-
ony,  doldrums, weariness, indifference, impassiveness, apathy.
{ Note  that  the  synonyms for BOREDOM,  unlike those for °JOY and °SORROW,
vary not in degree. } °EMOTION = 0, I:Table 2, I:1.6.

OUP—  lack  of  interest  or  attention;  a  matter of indifference;
neutrality.

RH—  a  method  of  calculation,  esp.  one  of  several  highly
systematic  methods  of treating problems by a special system
of  algebraic  notations,  as  differential  or  integral  calculus.

OUP— the  infinitesimal calculuses of differentiation: differential
calculus –  Math.  an  infinitesimal  difference between success-
ive  values  of  a variable; a function expressingthis as a rate of
change with respect to another variable.

Etymology L, =  small  stone  used  in  reckoning  on an abacus

[1610-20; < L:  pebble,  small stone  (used in reckoning) = calc-,
s. of calx limestone]

Final CausesBk.XIV:1:xix, WikipediA, Britannica.
Cause, G:Note 1, definition, hypothesis,D:2.11ff, I:2.5c, TEI:[92]:34, Calculus:6.2b & c,

G:Shirley:2512 - Cause (causa). EL:L21(73):297,  adequate cause.                   E1:Parkinson:2602
Bk.XIV:2:1432TEI:[96(3)]:35, proximate cause.       Robinson3:170

"The  reader  will  find  that  Spinoza's  "cause"  is  not  quite    Hampshire:136—affectus
what  he  is  used to.  It need not imply temporal succession:
indeed,  for  Spinoza  a  cause  is  more  logical ground from           or hypothesis
which  a  consequent follows, . . . "For  example,  it  "follows"
from   the   nature  of  a triangle  that  its  three  angles  are             Durant:639
equal  to  two right angles.  { When there  is an increase in °P, °JOY
and  °LOVE  are  indwelling—inseparable consequences;  when  there  is a
decrease  in  °P,  °SORROW  and  °HATE  are  indwelling—inseparable con-
sequences }."   Hence, Spinoza occasionally couples the word
"cause" with the term "reason" ("ratio").
Bk.III:204.
By  the  phrase  "efficient cause"  Spinoza  means primarily        Stewart06:[4]
the  cause  that  produces  the  effect  in  question   and  is
quite   close  to  the  notion  of  a  sufficient  condition.  His
theory  of  causality  excludes  the  Aristotelian  final cause,
the  goal  or  purpose  of  a thing or event.  In his Appendix
to   Part I  Spinoza  explicitly claims  that   final causes  are
human fictions.
E1:Parkinson:2602.   Bk.XIV:1:111, 319, 322, 323,324.
The  phrases  "immanent cause"  (causa immanens)  and                Mark Twain
"transitive  cause"   (causa transiens)   appear  in  E1:XVIII.
A  transitive cause is one in which causation "passes over"
from the cause to the effect, while cause and effect remain
really distinct.  Mechanical causation would be an example
of transitive causation;  e.g. one billiard ball hitting another
into the pocket.    An immanent cause,  however,  is an "in-                 Important
dwelling cause," one that is inseparable from its effect. For
example, the numbers 1 and 2 are immanent causes of the
number 4 insofar as they are factors of it.   Although 1 and
2 can  be  separated  out  of 4 by analysis, they are never-
theless always "in" it.   It is Spinoza's thesis that G-D is the               Durant:639
immanent,  not the transitive cause of all things. This is the            AnalogyA fetus.
denial  of the  traditional  idea of God as the creative, tran-
scendent  cause of the world. Insofar as G-D is the unique
substance  of which everything  else is a mode, all modes
will  be in  G-D  and  G-D  will  be  their  indwelling cause."             Logos - 1 John 1:1
{ The  unsynthesized  argument  between  creationism  and  evolutionism                Bk.XXIBoth
is  embodied  in  the  above—transcendence  versus  immanence.
New Wine in Old BottlesE1:BWolfson:1:158; Spinozistic meaningD2:Dijn:265;           Important
Pragmatism, Burden of TTP, EL:[60]:xxixAnalogywith JOY is LOVE. }
< E1:Parkinson:2602 >; Bk.XX:19024.
< E1:Parkinson:2601 >                                        {Properties}
{Dictionary definitions are,
in Spinoza's terms, "transitive causes".
G:Note 1
In    Spinoza's    definitions,   "causes"   are   immanent   causes.
An   immanent   cause   is   an  "indwelling  cause,"  one  that  is
inseparable  from  its  effect—say,  a  fetus  turning  into  a Man.          E1:XVIII:62
An  transient  cause  is  when one billiard ball hits another—both
bodies apparently remain the same afterwards. I say apparently
because  in  reality  there  are no transitive causes; for all things
are in a constant, however slow, state of flux, even billiard balls.}

RH— bring  about,  lead to,  give rise to, bring to pass, produce,
generate,   create,  effect,  make,  provoke,  incline,  precipitate;
motivate, incite, stimulate, stir up, impel, inspire.

OUP— that which produces an effect, or gives rise to an action,
phenomenon, or condition.

[1175-1225; reason, sake, case]

Britannica.          see
Charity, Pity, Altruism, Compassion, Holy, Mercy, Organic, Piety,
Equity, Self-interest, Mother Theresa, TTP1:V(18):71, E4:L:221.

{ The  Hebrew  word  which  is  often  mis-translated  as charity,             Mark Twain
mercy,   pity,   etc.,   is   tsed-aw-kaw'Strong:6666—rightness,
justice,   virtue,   piety.   The  root  of tsed-aw-kaw' is tsaw-dak',
Strong:6663—upright, just, straight, innocent, true, sincere; (the
same  root  as  for  righteousness).   Based  on  this  etymology,        'I-thee' Relation
it  is  what  one  lung  does  when  the  other  collapses; it does
double-duty,  not  out  of  altruism,  but  for its very own survival.           Analogy
In so doing,  it is,  if possible, leading the collapsed lung back to
health  and  thereby  increasing  the  lung-capacity  of  the body.
It is the Golden Rule in working clothes; enlightened self-interest.}      Uzgalis - Hobbes
TTP3:XIV(17):183, Organic,Ridley's Altruism.

RH— donations or generous actions to aid the poor, ill, or help-
less;  benevolent  feeling,  esp.  toward  those  in  need;  to  do
something  out  of  charity;  leniency in judging others;  forbear-
ance; alms; Christian love {altruistic?}; agape { altruistic?, nonerotic
love, as of God for humankind or of humankind for God or for one another.}

[1125-75; ME charite < OF < L caritas = car (us) dear {affection,
love, esteem}+ -itas - ITY]

In  Latin  "Charistia" a festival celebrated among the Romans on            Thanksgiving Day
February 22,  the chief object of which was the reconcilement of                would be
family disagreements: from Cassell's Latin Dictionary.                               a good day.

WikipediA, Britannica,
Commandment, Duty, Obedience, Piety, Sacred, Divine Law+1, Mark Twain,
TTP4:XVII(49):219, D1:HirLev 19:18, Word of G-D, TTP1:Smith:109.

{ The Hebrew word for commandment is mits-vaw', Strong:4687             Hirsch
—a command,  an ordinance, a precept, good deed.  The  root
of mits-vaw'  is tsaw-vaw', Strong:6680—to enjoin,  bid,  send a             Includes
messenger,  put  in  order,  to  charge  with.  A  related  word  is            Scientific Laws.
tsaw-vaw'Strong:6633—to  mass  an  army,  fight,  war;  army,
host.  Based  on  this  etymology, a  commandment  is  an order
to  a  part  of  an  organism  to  do  its  duty  for  the  sake of the
organism's  perpetuation.   Enlightened  self-interest  is the better
reason  for  obeying  the  command,  not  fear  of  punishment.
See three injunctions.}

Bk.XIV:1:xxiii., Bk.III:240.
Conatus, Perpetuation, Secret, EL:[55]:xxvii, E2:Wolfson:178, E3:Endnote 6:0, 6:0a, & 11:0,
Bk.XV:278111 onE3:VI:136, Bk.XV:278112on E3:VII:136, D:1.7, E4:Dijn:34,
First law of nature,  Increased or Diminished, MarkTwain, Langer.

{From Cassell's Latin Dictionary: conatus— an exertion, effort; an impulse,                Damasio—biological
inclination; an undertaking. Elwes' translation of "conatus" is "endeavour."
[strives],3P4—inertia, E3:Dijn:240.}                                                                Hampshire:141, 179, 208e.

E3:VI:136—Preservation, Perpetuation, E3:Wolfson:2:204.                             Freud's Libido

E3:VII:136 Bk.XIX:233conatus.

The  endeavour  { conatus, I:1.5a },  wherewith  everything  en-
deavours  to  persist  in  its  own  being,  is nothing else but          Damasio—biological
the actual essence of the thing in question.

RH—connate.  existing  in  a person or thing from birth or origin;
inborn. associated in birth or origin.  allied or agreeing in nature;
cognate.  firmly  united; fused.   congenitally  joined,  as  leaves.

[1635-45;<LL connatus, ptp. of connasci to be born at the same
time with = L con- CON - + nasci  to  be  born;  see  NASCENT]

OUP—connate.  existing  in  a person or thing from birth; innate.
formed at the same time.

WikimediA,
Deduction, I:2.1,TTP1:V(66):76, E2:XLVII(3):118, Hypothesis, Insight, Bombardi.

TEI:[19:5]:8

From Peter Berger's "Rumor of Angels"—Deduction

I use induction to mean any process of thought that begins with experience. Deduction is the reverse process; it begins with ideas that precede experience. By "inductive faith," then, I mean a religious process of thought that begins with facts of human experience; conversely, "deductive faith" begins with certain assumptions (notably assumptions about divine revelation) that cannot be tested by experience. Put simply; inductive faith moves from human experience to statements about God {or G-D}, deductive faith from statements about God {or G-D} to interpretations of human experience.

{                        à priori                       }
RH—inference  from  the  general to the particular; a conclusion
reached  by  this  process;   conclusion,  inference,  assumption,
presumption,   judgment,   supposition,  interpretation,  analysis,
calculation;   understanding,   comprehension, reflection, guess,
speculation, consideration.  Compare INDUCTION.

OUP— the  inferring  of  particular instances from a general law.
I:2.6B

Neff, WikipediA,
Definition, Hypothesis, I:2.5c, axiom, cause, I:1.1ff, D:1.3ff, D:1.26b, D:2.13, D:2.11ff,                  TEI:[92-97]:34, E1:VIII(17):49, The Pragmatic Method.

Neff, WikimediA, Britannica                  Biology of EmotionsANS, James' Bear, Robinson3:109.
Definitions of the Emotions
- E3:Def:173, E3:GenDef:185, E3:Pfc(12):129.

"I have made a ceaseless effort not to ridicule (mock), not to bewail,
not  to  scorn  human  actions  { emotions },  but to understand them."
{Carefully  study  these  Definitions  and  see  how  they  help you                                       Mark Twain
understand "human actions," including your own. }   Bk.XX:189.

{All  these  terms  are  here  fully Capitalized  in accordance with
G:Notes 1 &2.   Prefix  the degree sign (°) before each of them.}
Common Parlance, Mark Twain. <E1:Parkinson:2601, Bk.XV:277106E3:DefEmo:173>         LeDoux96:43
AMBITION, ANGER, APPETITE, APPROVAL, AVARICE, AVERSION,       LeDoux96:113
BENEVOLENCE,    COMPASSION,    CONFIDENCE,   CONSTER-          Hampshire:138
NATION, CONTEMPT, COURAGECOURTESY,  COWARDICE,
CRUELTY,    DARING,   DERISION,   DESIRE,   DESPAIR,  DEVO-

TION,    DISAPPOINTMENT,    DISPARAGEMENT,   EMULATION,
ENVY,   FEAR, HATRED, HONOUR, HOPE, HUMILITY+1, INCLIN-
ATION,    INDIGNATION,    INTEMPERANCE,   JEALOUSY,   JOY,        {Spinoza's
LOVE, LUST, LUXURY, MELANCHOLY,  MEMORY, MERRIMENT         definitions}
PAIN,   PARTIALITY,   PITY,    PLEASURE,     PRIDE,     REGRET,
REPENTANCE,  REVENGE,  SAVAGENESS, SELF-ABASEMENT,
SELF-APPROVAL,   SHAME,   SIN,   STIMULATION, SUFFERING,
SYMPATHY,    THANKFULNESS,       TIMIDITY,      VACILLATION,
WONDER,      DOUBT,      DISDAIN,    MODESTY,    GRATITUDE,
DEFERENCE ,  CLEMENCY , VENERATION , HORROR, SCORN,
SELF-COMPLACENCY ,  IMPUDENCE ,   DEFERENCE ,   BASE,
HIGH-MINDEDNESS, INFIRMITY,  MIRTH+1.

RH— the  instantaneous  rate-of-change of one quantity in a
function with respect to another.

OUP— a quantity measuring the rate-of-change of another.

{First derivative:

°VELOCITY is the instantaneous change of °DISTANCE.
°EMOTION is the instantaneous change of °PCalculus:Fig. 2.

Second derivative:

°ACCELERATiON  is  the instantaneous change of
°VELOCITY.  The change is caused by an external
object—gas.

°FAITH  is  the instantaneous change of °EMOTION,
with  the  awareness  of  the cause.   The change is
caused  by  an  external object—say,  a  person, an
object, or an idea.

Third derivative: Calculus:Table 1, Note 4 , I:1.8 }

Determinism is the philosophical doctrine which claims that every physical event, including human thinking and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences.  Fatalism—Ridley:307

According to Laplace, probabilities arise from our ignorance. The world is deterministic, so the probability of a possible event depends on our limited information about it rather than on the causal forces that determine whether it shall occur.

You have no Free-Will to act against Nature. (You have no Free-Will to not, someday, die.) But you may? have Free-Choice to do something doable. (You fall in love with someone and it changes your whole life. I met my wife at a football game.) I say, may, because (at our present state of knowledge) it is unknowable that you had Free-Choice and was not compelled by your hardware (nature, temperament, genes) and software (nurture, experiences, education, training).

Free-Choice (a decision based on your hard wiring and data base) means you are compelled by seemingly random "Exterior Influences" to act in a certain way. Just as seemingly random mutations affect species, so seeming random "Outside Influences" affect your future. I say 'seemingly' because it is only a lack of knowledge of the chain of causes that keeps you from understandingthe known effect.

As an analogy, you have the choice a computer has as it is makes a decision based on its data base. Remember: Garbage in (false subjectivity) is garbage out.

The cash Value of positing 'No Free-Will' and 'No Free-Choice', i.e. Determinism, is that it provides the logic for hypothesizing 'no praise, no blame'. (The criminal should not be blamed in the same way one who has scarlet fever is not blamed—but in both cases, society does protects itself by incarceration or quarantine. A genius should not be praised; an idiot should not be blamed. See Spinoza's Dictum.)  Also by providing the logic for diligent study to discover the causes (such as the human genome project) of behavior.

The cash value for those that posit 'Free-Will' and Free-Choice is pedagogic exhortation to behave by providing the logic for 'award and punishment' (supposedly to keep people from going berserk if there is to be no blame placed).

RH— 1. a doctrine that all facts and events exemplify natural laws. 2. a doctrine that all events have necessary and sufficient causes. (Necessary cause—you need to be an American citizen in good standing to get an American passport; Sufficient cause—you need pay \$75 to get an American passport.)

Neff, WikipediA, Britannica.
°DESIRE, appetiteinstinct (Appetitus), E3:XXXVII:155, E4:Def.VII:191, E5:IV(7):249,

EL:[55]:xxvii, TTP1(3:21):45.E3:De.I:173

"Desire is the actual essence of a man, in so far as it { he             MarkTwain
is conceived,  as determined  to a  particular activity { say,           Robinson3:15
to eat
}  by  some  given  modification ofitself  { himself, when          Will & Desire
he becomes hungry }.

"Explanation. – ... appetite  is  the  essence  of man, in so
far  as  it { he }  is determined to act {, if RATIONAL } in a way
tending to promote its { his } own persistence."

E3:IX:137

". . . Desire is appetite with consciousness thereof."
{G:Note 1 }

E4:Def.VII:191

"By an end, for the sake of which we do something,
I mean a desire."

RH— { Positive values sexual  appetite  or a sexual urge, a longing
or  craving,  as  for  something  that  brings  satisfaction,  want,  to
ask for,  solicit,  request.  { Negative values } dislike, distaste, decline,
spurn,  refuse,  reject,  repudiate,  aversion.   { Note  how  everyday
language  expresses  the varying positive and negative intensities with another
synonym.  G:Note 1 }

[1200-50; to long for, require]

WikipediA,
Dogma
, I:2.8c, I:2.13b,BkX:56, Quibble, EL:[64]:xxxi, Christian Dogmas, TTP3:XIV(39):185,          TTP3:XIV(43, 45, 47):186, TTP4:XVII(49):219.

RH— a system of principles or tenets, as of a church; a specific
tenet  or  doctrine  authoritatively  put forth, as by a church; pre-
scribed  doctrine:  political  dogma; an established belief or prin-
ciple.    You   can't   embrace   a  religion  without  accepting  its
dogmas:   doctrine,  teachings,  set  of beliefs, principles, philos-
ophy; convictions, credo, tenet.

OUP— a principle,  tenet, or system of these, esp. as laid down
by  the  authority  of  a  Church;  such  principles collectively; an
arrogant declaration of opinion.

[1590-1600; to seem, think, seem good, opinion.]

WikipediA,
Duty, D:1.34a, Altruism, Sacred, Commandment, Piety, ONE, Obedience & Self-interest,
TTP1:V(55):75, TTP3:XV(3):190, TTP4:XVII(49):219, TTP4:XIX(39,42):249,      TTP3:XIV(17):183D1:HirLev 19:18.

"Moreover,  the  Bible  teaches very clearly in a great many
passages what everyone ought to do in order to obey G-D;
the  whole  duty  is  summed  up  in love to one's neighbour.
{ the Golden Rule, Mark Twain}."

{A completely free man fulfills his function not out of duty but          E4:Dijn:246.
of the knowledge that he is a part of an organism just as the
heart  of  his  body.   A  part of an organism, an orchestra, a           Own Sake
country,  all  have their function to perform for their very own
good—it is not altruism.}                                                   Mark Twain
E4:LX(1):228, E4:Ap.XVII:239.

RH— something that one is expected or required to do by moral
or  legal  obligation,  an  action  or  task  required  by a person's
position or occupation, the respectful and obedient conduct due
a parent, elder, or superior, a task or chore that one is expected
to perform,  an  assigned  military task,  occupation,  or place of
service,  the military service  required  of  a  citizen by a country.

[1250-1300; duete. See DUE, - TY ]

Ego, External, Id, E3:Def.II:129, EgoismBritannica, WikipediA,

RH— the " I " or self of any person;  a thinking,  feeling, and con-
scious being, able to distinguish itself from other selves {or even
itself}.   Psychoanal.  the  conscious,  rational  component  of the
psyche  that  experiences  and  reacts  to  the outside world and
mediates between the demands of the id and superego;   Philos.
- the  enduring  and  conscious  element  that  knows experience.

OUP—  Metaphysics-a conscious thinking subject;  Psychol. the
part  of the mind that reacts to reality and has a sense of individ-
uality:  Psychol.  the  part of the mind developed from the ego by
an awareness of social standards.

[1780-90; < L: I; psychoanalytic term is trans. of G (das) Ich (the) I ]

'emotion' versus 'feelings', Neff, Britannica, WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xxii,  Bk.XIV:2:180,  Bk.III:241, 242.
°EMOTION, Modification, °JOY, BOREDOM, °SORROW, I:Table 1, I:Table 2,
I:1.6, D:1.10ff, I:2.5c, Calculus:Fig.1(a), C:Fig.2,C:2.4, C:Fig.3, I:2.5c, E3:GenDef:185,
E4:XIV(1):198, E4:XLI:217, E5:III:248, E5:XVII, EL:[53]:xxvi, EL:[56]:xxvii, EL:[57]:xxviii,
ModeE3:General Definition of the Emotions [Affects]:185, Outlines of Psychology.

E3:D.III:130

{°EMOTION is a change in one's °Perpetuation.      The answer.
Its  intensity  is  proportional  to  the  change.    Biology of EmotionsANS
If the change is negative, it is °SORROW.
If the change is zero, it is BOREDOM.                                                E3:William James

If the change is positive, it is °Joy.}

{ "°Emotion" and "Intensity of emotion" are equivalent terms because the symbol
°Emotion implies an intensity, just as a triangle implies that its interior angles
are equal to 180°.  Calculus:Figs.3, 4, 5, & 6. }
{ I:2.5c, G:Shirley:2512Waves, C:Fig.2, G:Notes 1 &2. }

{ If the idea of the change is based on "adequate knowledge",                  E3:I:130
the  idea  is objective; and the emotion is an active emotion.           E4:Dijn:247- 8
if  not,  the  idea  is  subjective; and the emotion is a passive             E3:GN(2)n
emotion. }
Bk.XIV:2:1931, Bk.VIII:46443, Bk.III:241, 242
Shirley's Bk.VII:2821. Emotion (affectus);  Usage by Spinoza explained
< Bk.XV:277106E3:DefEmo:173 >

This  is  the  usual  translation of  'affectus,' and the translator    Hampshire:135—affectus
had  best  retain  it  in  default  of a more accurate term.  It cer-
tainly seems odd to speak of  'the emotions of desire' and this
is  a  sufficient  indication that 'affectus' is not quite the equiva-
lent  of  our  'emotion.'  Its definition in Def. 3, III makes it clear
that  'affectus' is equally a bodily state (affectio) and its mental           LeDoux96:43
counterpart as idea, but it is inevitable that Spinoza should be
more concerned with the latter than the former.

< Bk.XV:277106E3:DefEmo:173 >
The names assigned to the particular emotions in Parts III and
IV  will  sometimes appear strange to the reader.  But Spinoza
emphasizes  on  more than one occasion that he is not analys-
ing  the  way  that  words  are  used  in common parlance.  He
claims  to  deduce  emotion  by strict scientific reasoning from
his  philosophic  position,  and  he  assigns to these emotions
such names from common usage as come nearest to express-
ing his meaning.  Indeed, some of the emotions thus deduced,
he says, have no names in common language. This is in keep-
ing  with his nominalismWords are not vitally important; they
are merely our way of getting to the 'real.'    {Cash Value }
< From Endnote 1, Bk.XV:260— . . . . One may compare
what  is done by scientists when they introduce new technical
terms,  or  give old words a new sense, with a view to explain-
ing  what  it  is  that  interests  them.  For  Spinoza's views on
definitions cf, TEI:[95-8]35. >

RH— an  affective  state  of consciousness in which joy, sorrow,              LeDoux96:43
fear,  etc.,  is  experienced,  as distinguished from cognitive and
volitional   states   of   consciousness;   a  strong agitation of the                   Emotion
feelings  caused  by experiencing { Positive values } joy, happiness
passion, excitement, sentiment, zeal, ardor, fervor, heat, warmth,
satisfaction,   pride.   { Negative valuesconcern,  agitation,  anger,
jealousy,  fear,  sadness,  despair,  vehemence,  sorrow.
{ Note  how  everyday  language  expresses  the varying positive and negative
intensities with another synonym. G:Note 1 , I:1.6, Calculus:Fig.1(a) }

[1570-80; to set in motion,  move the feelings; agitation, disturb-
ance of the mind, excite]

Neff, WikipediA,, Bk.VII:21:1, Bk.XIV:1:xiii.
ESSENCEBeingness(Essentia): Nature, °PERPETUATION, Includes,
E1:D.I:45. E2:D.II:82Bk.XV:26957E2:X(10)N2:89; Bk.XIV:1:144, 145.

E3:VII:136

]conatus[
"The  endeavour,   wherewith  everything  endeavours  to          Durant:638
persist in its ownbeing { °P } is nothing else but the actual
essence of the thing in question."

RH—the basic, real, and invariable nature of a thing; substance;
(in  philosophy)    the  true  nature   or  constitution  of  anything,
(opposed to)  what  is  accidental,  phenomenal, illusory.

[1350-1400; to be]

Wikipedia , Bk.XIV:1:xi, Bk.XIV:1:3.
Euclidean Geometrical Method, EL:[35]:xxi, Axiom, Calculus, I:1.3, D:1.5a,
E3:Pfc(14):129, TTP1:V(66):76, E1:Parkinson:2601, Bk.III:154,188,189,1918, Bk.XIB:245.
Bk.III:21129.
{ The subtitle  of  the  Ethics  is  "ordine geometrico demonstrata" }            Durant:636

EL:[3]:vi.Geometrical Method of "The Ethics".   Bk.XII:216; Bk.XIV:1:32; 58.
Bk.XIX:20-22;Bk.XX:200.

Again,  the  form in which his principal work is cast  is such as         Runes:iii
to repel those dilettante readers, whose suffrage is necessary         Einstein:i
for a widely-extended  reputation;  none but genuine students
would  care  to  grapple  with  the  serried  array of definitions,
axioms,  and  propositions,   of  which  "The Ethics" { Bk.I }, is
composed,  while  the  display  of  geometric accuracy flatters
the   careless    into   supposing,   that  the  whole structure  is
interdependent,  and  that,  when  a  single  breach  has been
effected, the entire fabric has been demolished.

Wolfson:1:581- Geometrical Method of "The Ethics".—

In a letter to Oldenburg he says, "It is not my custom to expose
the  errors  of  others,''  and  in  another  place he expresses a
reluctance  "to  seem  to  be desirous of exposing the errors of
others."  In  still  another  place  he  declares  himself not to be
bound "to discuss what every one may dream." By resorting to
the  use of the geometrical form he could avoid all this, at least
openly. But Spinoza never meant to imply that by his use of the        Wolf
geometrical  form his philosophy, like the geometry of Euclid, is
the  unfoldment  of  certain  a priori  self-evident  truths. For his    innate, born-with
axioms,  properly  understood,  are not necessarily self-evident
truths,  any  more  than  his  propositions  are  necessarily new
truths discovered by demonstration. Most often they are merely
restatements of generally accepted mediaeval brocards.

{elementary principles ^ }

RH— pertaining  to  Euclid,  or  adopting  his  postulates: to claim or
assume  the  existence  or truth  of,  esp. as a basis for reasoning or
arguing; to assume without proof, or as self-evident; Math., Logic. to
assume  something  taken  as self-evident or assumedwithout proof
as a basis for reasoning; Math., Logic. a proposition that requires no
proof,  being  self-evident,  or that is for a specific purpose assumed
true, and that is used in the proof of other propositions; axioms.

[1650-60; of Euclid]
[1525-35; postulate - petition, thing requested, to request, demand]

Neff, WikipediA , Bk.XIV:1:xiii, xiv.
EXISTENCE,G–D, No. 7, ETERNITY, E5:L29[4, 5](12):318,

"By  that  which  is  self-caused,  I  mean  that of which the
essence  involves  existing,  or  that  of  which the nature
is only conceivable as existent."

E1:Def.VIII:46

"By  eternity,  I  mean  existence itself, in so far as it is con-
ceived  necessarily  to  follow  solely  from the definition of
that which is eternal."                                                    Calculus:4.7

RH - the state or fact of existing; being; all that exists:
Existence shows a universal order; entity.

OUP - the fact or condition of being or existing; all that exists.

[L exsistere , stare stand]

External, ego, Id, Thing, I:1.8, I:1.11, E3:De.VI:175, E4:Axi:191, Gas

{External  includes  yourself  as  implied  in  the  thought  "I hate
myself." }

RH— of or pertaining to the world of things{including the ego},
considered as independent of the mind.

OUP— of or situated on the outside or visible part (opp. internal);
coming or derived from the outside or an outside source; outside
the conscious subject (the external world).

[outside]

WikipediA
°FAITH, faith, °LOVE, INDIFFERENCE, °HATE, I:Table 1, Leap-of-faith, I:Table 3,

I:1.7, I:1.11, D:1.23, D:1.24, D:1.26b, D:1.28, TTP3:XIV(23):184, Bk.X:56,

CashValue, D2:Dijn:235, Grace, Free Will & Free Choice.

[1200-50; ME feith < AF fed, OF feid, feit < L fidem, acc. of fides
trust, akin to fidere to trust]

Fear, Awe, TTP1:IV(34):60, TTP1:IV(80):66, TTP1:IV(90):67

{ The Hebrew word translated as fear is yir-aw',  Strong:3374
fear,  reverence,  holy,  dreadful.  The  root  is yaw-ray',
Strong:
3372—to fear,  to revere,  to frighten.  Based on this etymology,
the  fear is  like  that  of,  say, touching an active electrical wire,
fearing  an  undertow  at  the beach, or passing a red light. The
{Bk.XIX:24831
fear,  or awe,  stems
from knowing the consequences of an act.                EL:L25(78):306}

The translation "to fear the Lord" is unfortunate; better would be "awe":

You  are  in  awe  of  an  undertow and, if rational, would not
put yourself in harms way by swimming out into it.

You are in awe of G-D and, if rational, would not cause your-
self  a  decrease  in  °P  by  putting  yourself in harms way—
violating a Commandment.}

Under conditions of scarcity, fences are necessary; but under
conditions of affluence as a result of technological advancement
they become superfluous.

RH—a barrier enclosing or bordering a field, yard, etc., usu.
made of posts and wire or wood, used to prevent entrance.

Neff,
Finite I:1.4, definition, idolatry, infinite, °RATIONAL, I:1.5c , EL:[41]:xxiii, Bk.XIV:1:133.

E1:Def.VII:46

"That  Thing  {G-D}  is called  free, which exists solely by the           Infinite
necessity  of  its  own nature,  and  of  which  the  action  is            Robinson5:40
determined by itself alone. On the other hand, that thing {G-d}          finite
is necessary, or rather constrained, which is determined by          MarkTwain
something external to itself to a fixed and definite method of
existence or action.

RH— having  bounds  or  limits; measurable: (of a set of mathe-
matical  elements)  capable  of  being  completely  counted.  not
zero.  subject  to  limitations  or  conditions,  as  of  space,  time,
circumstances, or the laws of nature. (opposed to) infinite, unlimit-
ed,  unbounded,  boundless,  measureless;  endless, perpetual.

[1375-1425; to stop, limit.]

Neff, WikipediA , Bk.XIV:1:xvi, xxii, Bk.XIV:2:164, Bk.III:246.
Free-will, Volition, Free Choice, Determinism, Posit, Quibble, EL:[55]:xxvii, EL:[55]:xxvii,       EL:L22ff(74):299, Understanding, Neff L62(58):389, Bk.XIII:276276Neff L60(56):389,
Bk.XV:276
100, Bk.XVII:167, Bk.XIV:2:164, E2:Wolfson:2:178, Pineal Gland, Durant65:177,       Circumstances, Taylor/Wheeler92:iii, Ripley:309.

"Will and understanding are one and the same."

E2:Wolfson:2:1721, 2, & 3—Spinoza now returns to his main problem, to show
that the will is not free,  and with this also to deny the freedom of
the  other  faculties,  such as understanding, desiring, loving, etc.,
all of which, like will, are only modes of thought.

RH—  free  and  independent  choice;   voluntary  decision.  the           WikipediA
doctrine  that  the conduct of human beings expresses personal
choice and is not simply determined by physical or divine forces.

Function, Functionalism, Beauty, Ugly, Pragmatic, Cash Value, E4:Ap.30:242,
Dawkins:276—Brains and Computers; FunctionalismCartoon.

{Function is an action which increases °P. Dysfunction is an action
which decreases °P.   In preventing chaos, traffic-lights perform the
same  function  as heart valves.  A dysfunctional traffic-light causes
chaos; a dysfunctional heart valve causes . . . . }

RH— the  kind  of action or activity proper to a person, thing, or
institution;   the  purpose  for  which  something  is  designed  or
exists; role.

OUP— a  mode  of  action  or  activity by which a thing fulfills its
purpose; fulfill a function, operate; be in working order.

[1525-35; performance, execution]

{ Games  are  atavistic  play-acting  at  an  activity which in real life is
necessary for PERPETUATION. Examples–sports, boxing, gambling,        {Controlled
war-games,  fishing,  hunting, (some  gunlovers  are sublimating their           conatus}
aggressiveness). Sexual intercourse without the desire to have issue
is also a game.

Proof.– The more actual the NEED; the more pleasurable, the success;
the more sorrowful, the failure.

Conspicuous and emulative consumption are also games; because          Read "The Theory
they are an attempt to show one better than, or equal to, his fellow. }    of the Leisure Class"

RH— an amusement or pastime;  a competitive activity involving skill,
chance,  or  endurance  and played according to a set of rules for the
amusement  of  the  players  or  spectators;  a  trick  or  strategy; wild
animals,  including  birds  and  fishes,  such as are hunted for food or
taken for sport or profit.

[bef. 1000; ME; OE gaman; c. OHG gaman glee]

Neff, WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xiv .                              ] that is [
G–D or DEUS, ONE, G-D, or Nature, Nature, Being, Religion, Idolatry,

Knowledge, Organic, Pragmatism, CashValue, PantheismG-d, Bk.X:56, Quibble

Works, I:1.5c, I:2.5c, D:2.2, TTP3:XIII(16):177, E1:Def. I-VIII:45, E1:XIV:54,

E5:XV:255,  New Wine in Old BottleE1:Wolfson:1:158; D1:HirLev 19:18.

EL:[60]:xxix,LT:L36(23):345, Prejudice, Bk.XIB:246, 247{ sham }.

Especially E1:Def. VI:45E1:Wolfson:1:158. Bk.III:189G:posit. ST:Note 4, E5:Spinoza's Daring.

Neff                            Neff
Good and Bad, E1:(AP:47, 52):79, E3:IX(5):137, E4:(Prf:2):187, E4:(Prf:32):189,
E4:Def.I:190,  E4:XIX:202,  E4:LXV:231, E4:LXVIII:232, TEI:[12:2]:6,  Mark Twain,
TEI:[13:2]:6,  TTP4:XVI(21):202, EL:[45]:xxv, EL:[55]:xxvii, EL:[57]:xxviii, Evil (Satan).

°HATE, I:Table 1, I:Table 3, °LOVE, I:1.7, I:1.13, D:1.31, I:2.5c,

E3:XIII(3):140, E3:De.VI:175,E5:XVIIc:256.

E3:De.VII:176

{°HATE  is  belief  that  an  external object will         needs
decrease  one's  °Perpetuation.   The  intensity
is  proportional  to  the  decrease  feared.
If the decrease is negative (an increase), it is °LOVE.
If the decrease is zero, it is INDIFFERENCE.
If the decrease is positive, it is °HATE.}

E3:XLVIII:161, Immanent

E3:XLIII:159

Hatred is increased by being reciprocated, and can on the
other  hand  be destroyed  by  love{ E3:XLIV:159, Pity }

E4:XLV:218

RH— { Negative  values  of °FAITH } to  dislike  intensely  or passion-
ately;  feel  extreme  aversion  for  or  extreme  hostility  toward;
detest;   the   object   of   extreme  aversion  or  hostility:  dislike,
despise,  detest,  abhor,  loathe,  abominate,  execrate,  hold  in
contempt,  bear  malice  toward,  be  hostile to,  have no use for,
recoil  from,  shrink  from,  be  repelled  by.  { Note  how  everyday             Calculus:Fig.1(b)
language  expresses  varying  intensity  with  another  word.
G:Note 1,I:1.7,D:1.26b. }

Highest Good, Blessedness, E4:XXXVI(36:2n):211, E4:Ap.IV:237,
E4:Ap.XXV:240, TEI:[12]:6, TEI:[25:IV]:10, TTP1:IV(25-37):59, Neff.

E4:XXVIII:205Ferguson

From Parkinson's Introduction to Bk.XV:xx-xxiiSpinoza's Religion:

Religion, as he understands it, is 'Whatever we desire and do of which we are the cause, in so far as we ... know G-D' {so that we can have peace-of-mind} (4P37n1). To grasp the full meaning of this, one must take account of the fact that there is for Spinoza a link between one's knowledge of G-D and one's activity as a moral agent
{to act as a part of an infinite organism so that, that organism can be healthier and you, as part of that organism, be healthier.}This link involves what is page xxi perhaps the key concept of Spinoza's moral philosophy, namely, the concept of freedom {the heart acts freely in accordance with its nature, the lung acts feely in accordance with its nature, for the health of the  organism.}.

There is a more direct link between religion and morals. If religion is an hypothesis designed to find peace-of-mind, as I think it is, whose life is more peaceful and tranquil, an honest man or a thief—certainly the honest man. If a thief is a pious person, his religion is not religion but idolatry—he is asking his idol {thievery} to bring him good fortune in his thievery.

{The Hebrew word for Holy is ko'desh, Strong:6944—a sacred
place  or  thing,  hallowed,  holiness.   The  root   of  ko'desh  is
kaw-dash' ,  Strong: 6942—to be pure, clean, i.e. right, straight,
true, just.  Based on  this etymology,  what  is pure, clean, right,
straight,   true,   just,   etc.,   is   Holy;   the  test  is—that  which
PERPETUATES   is  Holy.   If  it  does  not PERPETUATE, it is
unholy—profane.}

RH— recognized   as  or declared  sacred  by  religious  use  or
authority;   dedicated   or  devoted  to  the  service  of  God,  the
church,  or  religion;  saintly;  pious;  devout; having a spiritually
pure   quality:   a   holy   love;   inspiring  fear,  awe, or  distress.

[bef. 900; WHOLE =  a  thing complete in itself or comprising all                   Worm
its parts or elements.]             {Mysticism}

WkipediA, Britannica
Hypothesis, posit, axiom, dogma, knowledge, ONE, pragmatic, truth, Pagan, I:2.1, D:2.5d,
D:2.6, D:2.6dD:2.11, Cash Value , BkX:56, TTP2:Note 8, TEI:[62]:23Infinite, Induction,
DeductionIntuitionScientific Method, Religion,Belief, Leap of Faith, Determinism.

OUP—Posit: a statement which is made on the assumption that it will prove valid.

RH— a  provisional  theory  set  forth  to  explain  some  class of
phenomena,  either  accepted  as  a  guide to future investigation
(working  hypothesis)   or   assumed  for  the  sake  of  argument                 ST:Note 4
and testing; a proposition assumed as a premise in an argument.
[1590-1600; basis, supposition, to assume, suppose]

OUP— a proposition made as a basis for reasoning, without the
assumption  of its truth; supposition made as a starting-point for
further investigation from known facts (cf. theory).
[Etymology foundation (as hypo-, thesis)]

{An hypothesis is subject to error.   Care must be taken to follow
the scientific method—a method of research in which a problem
is identified, relevant data gathered, a hypothesis is formulated,
and the hypothesis is empirically tested.

WikipediA,
Id, external, ego, E3:Def.II:129.

RH—  Psychoanal,  the  part  of the psyche that is the source of
unconscious  and  instinctive  impulses  that seek satisfaction in
accordance with the pleasure principle.                                                      Mark Twain

OUP— Psychol. the inherited instinctive impulses of the individ-
ual as part of the unconscious.

[1924; < L id it, as a trans. of G Es lit., it]

Neff, Bk.XIV:1:xxi-3.
Idea, Adequate, Confused, Perception, E2:Def.III:82, E2:XLIX:120, E2:XLIX(13):121.

Shirley's Bk.VII:2513Idea.  TEI:[38]:14, E2:XLVIII(8) & XLIX:120, E1:XXX:(1):69, common notion.

This  an  extremely important term in Spinoza's philosophy.
It  is  not usually equivalent to the English "idea," when the     Hampshire:135—affectus
latter  is synonymous with "notion" or image."  In fact, Spin-
oza  warns  us  not to construe "idea" as signifying a pictor-
ial  representation  of a thing, a "dumb picture on a tablet."       E2:Parkinson:27484
An  idea,  for  Spinoza  is  an  act  of  thought; it is almost a        2P49—example
transitive  verb  having  an  object,   its  ideate  (‘ideatum"),
i.e. "that  which  is  idea-ed."     Spinoza  does  in  fact  use
"objectum"  ("object") and "ideatum" ("ideate") as alternative          Bombardi
expressions.  < ^ Bk.XV:27059on E2:D.IV:82 >
{ LT:L66(64):398 },  ] E1:Shirley:609 [

In   many  contexts  the  term  "idea"  has  the  meaning  of
judgment,  or  assertion  (E2:XLVIII(4), XLIX).   Accordingly,
"idea"  is  for  Spinoza  closer  in  signification  to  the  term           Hypotheses
"proposition"  than  to  such terms as "concept" or "notion."             Definition
Ideas will then be true or false { subject to intense scrutiny }.
{ Example.—The quintessential (pragmatic) "idea" is Spinoza's posit of G-D,
a  true  idea. }

"Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any                  {The sins of
likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in                the fathers }
the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth, ...."

{It is natural that idolatry of images should occur because infinity is
expressible  only  by  a  symbol;  but  the  symbol should not stand
for  a  deity or a State. They should be symbols of an idea or ideal.
Except  for  the  National  Flag  which  represents  the  State (pity),
Jewish symbols generally represent:

1.  Law— the Torah; Talmud; Constitution, din medinah din.

2.  Learning—the  Menorah   (a candelabrum used in modern

synagogues); the light of knowledge—burning midnight oil.

3.  Love of G-D—the Mezuzah; ( a parchment scroll, inscribed
with  Deu. 6: 4-9  and  11: 13-21,  inserted  in  a  case and
attached  to  an exterior doorpost of the home.  Some have
the  word  Sh-dai   inscribed  on  the  outside  of  the  case.
In  effect  "posit"  (Deu. 6:4—the Shema)  and "meditation"
(Deu. 6:7)  are  encapsulated.  It is meant, ideally,  to be a
reminder of "Right Way ofLiving"  as  you enter and leave
the home.

From "Shema" Encyclopædia Britannica Online:

The  Shema  texts are also chanted at other times during
the Jewish liturgy.  The biblical verses inculcate the duty
to learn, to study, and to observe the Torah.  These texts               Torah
and  their  appropriate  prayers  are consequently sacred
to   Jews   because   they  contain  a  profession  of  faith,
a  declaration  of  allegiance to the kingship and kingdom
of G-D, and a symbolic representation of total devotion to
the study of the Torah.

{4Nationhood—the Star of David; Nationalism.  This symbol
is  not  Spinozistic.  It  becomes  a  divisive symbol (fence)       {A Menorah is a
like the Cross, Crescent, and National flags. National flags     more proper symbol}
should  become  to the United Nations what the U.S. State
flags are to the United States of America.

From The Quotable Einstein; 0691026963; 1996; Page 98:

My awareness of the essential nature of Judaism resists the idea of a Jewish state with borders, an army, and a measure of temporal power. . . . I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustainespecially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our ranks,which we have already had to fight strongly even without a Jewish state.... A return to a nation in the political sense of the word would be equivalent to turning away from the spiritualization of our community which we owe to the geniusof our prophets.
New York Times, June 8, 1936

Ideally this is so; but what were the Jews to do after German Nazism.
March into the sea. As a result the Jews and the Arabs suffer.}

From The Quotable Einstein; Page 241:

He was a Zionist on general humanitarian grounds rather than on nationalistic grounds. He felt that Zionism was the only way in which the Jewish problem in Europe could be settled.... He was never in favor of aggressive nationalism, but he felt that a Jewish homeland in Palestine was essential to save the remaining Jews in Europe....After the State of Israel was established, he said that some- how he felt happy he was not there to be involved in the deviations from the high moral tone he detected.
Ernst Straus, quoted in Whitrow, Einstein, pp. 87-88

{The  Pantheon  of  deified  figures  of  modern  world  religions  is
an evolution of the Pantheon of Pagan gods. This is not pejorative (derogatory)
of either Pantheon.  It is the evolution of the hypothesis of Religion              Holidays
to  purer  and  purer  Monotheism—from the fetish of a caveman to
an  unadulterated  Monotheism.}

RH— an image or other material object representing a deity and
worshiped  as  such;  (in  the  Bible)  a  deity  other  than  God; a
person  or thing devotedly or excessively admired; a mere image
or  semblance  of  something,  visible  but  without  substance; a
false notion; fallacy. excessive admiration or devotion; inordinate
love,  worship,  adoration,  obsession,  preoccupation, excessive
fondness, passion, devotion, veneration, single-minded attention,
infatuation, senseless attachment, madness, mania.

OUP— an  image  of  a  deity  etc. used as an object of worship;
Bibl. a false god; a person or thing that is the object of excessive
or supreme adulation.

[1200-50; ME < LL idolum < Gk eídolon image, idol, der. of
eîdos shape, form (see eidetic)]

Wikipedia,
Induction, I:2.1, Compare DEDUCTIONPeter Berger.

TEI:[19:4]:8No. III.

"Perception  arising  when  the essence  { the general }
of  one  thing  is  inferred  from  another  thing   { the
particular
}
, but { possibly } not adequately; this comes . . ."
{ I:2.6A }

RH— (in logic).  any  form of reasoning in which the conclusion,
though  supported  by  the  premises, does not follow from them
necessarily;  the  process  of  estimating  the validity of observa-
tions  of  part  of  a class  of  facts as evidence for a proposition
about  the  whole  class;  a  conclusion reached by this process.

{                     à posteriori                       }
OUP— the  inference of a general law from particular instances.

Neff, WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xiii .
Infinite, G-D only is infinite, finite, idolatry, °RATIONAL, I:1.4,TEI:[89]:33, Sham ,                 NeffE5:L29(12):317Spinoza's famous letter on the Infinite, Indivisible, Bk.XIV:1:133.

E1:Def.VII:46

{always}
"That Thing {G-D} is called ^ free, which exists solely by the
necessity of its own Nature {to be}, and of which the action               Infinite
is  determined  by  itself  alone.  On  the  other  hand, that            Robinson5:40
thing {G-d} is necessary, or rather constrained, which is de-             MarkTwain
termined  by  something  external  to  itself  to  a  fixed and              Finite
definite method of existence or action.

{With  our  present  state  of  knowledge  we  do not  comprehend              Disclaimer
concepts  which  involve  infinity ( G-D ); we can only hypothesize
and test the hypothesis on the basis of its Cash Value.}

RH— unbounded  or  unlimited;  boundless; endless. (opposed
to) small, little, limited; finite; circumscribed, definitive, restricted,
limited, bounded, measurable.

OUP— Math.  a  greater than any assignable quantity or count-
able  number;  of  a  series)  that  may  be continued indefinitely.

[1350-1400; boundless.]

{ Examples— I:1:7c, Calculus:1:4 }

RH— an  instance of  apprehending  the  true  nature of a thing,
esp.  through  intuitive understanding; penetrating mental vision
or discernment: perception, spontaneous understanding, appre-
hension,  acumen,  innate knowledge, penetration, discernment,
intuition,  penetrating  judgment, immediate, cognition, perspica-
city, perspicaciousness, perceptiveness, perceptivity, instinctive
knowledge,  clear  understanding, comprehension.
{ antonyms } obtuseness, blindness.

OUP— the capacity of understanding hidden truths etc., esp. of
character or situations.

[discernment, in - sight]

Neff, Bk.XIV:1:xxv.
Intellectual Love of G-D, Love of G-D, Mysticism, Awareness, Organic, TEI:[10]:5,        E5:XXXII(2):263, E5:XXXIII:263, E5:XXXV:264, E5:XXXVI:264, E5:XXXVII:266, Love,      TTP1:IV(25-37):59, EL:[60]:xxix, EL:Endnote xxix:1A, CashValue, Einstein, Buber:127,

{The intellectual awareness of the organic interdependence of all parts of the ONE
is what Spinozism calls the enlightening Intellectual Love of G-D.}

Neff, WikipediA,
Intuition, Insight, Revelation, Mysticism, Artistic Import, I:2.1, D:2.5d, TTP2:VII(170):116,
E4:Ap.IV:237, E5:XXXVI(8):265, Power of Intuition, Bk.XIV:2:155.

Intuition is designing an hypothesis.                    Electricity

Intuition is the knowledge that comes from
a mystical experience.
.

TEI:[19:5]:8—        < E5:Parkinson:285177 >

" . . the perception arising when a thing is                           Robinson3:170
perceived  solely  through its essence, or                      Intuition is the 'aha' moment.
through  the  knowledge  of  its proximate
cause."   E2:XL(19):113. {Understanding}

{   a priori, innate, born-with.    }                                                             Wolf:P15, L5
RH—  direct  perception  of  truth,  fact, etc., independent of any      Encyclopædia Britannica
{ conscious } reasoning process;  immediate apprehension;  a fact,
truth,  etc.,  perceived  in this way; the qualityor ability of having
such direct perception or quick insight.  I:2.7

OUP— immediate apprehension by the mind without reasoning;
immediate apprehension by a sense; immediate insight.

[1400-50; the act of gazing at; look; contemplate; watch over]

WikipediA, 'emotion' versus 'feelings'
°JOY, I:Table 1, °PLEASURE,I:Table 2, Introduction, I:1.6, I:1.9, D:1.13, D:1.13N,                  D:1.18ff, E3:XI(2):138, E3:De.III(1):174, E3:De.V:175,TEI:[109]:40, Happy.

E3:De.II:174

"Pleasure{ °JOY, happiness } is the transition of a man from a less                1AP:53
to a greater perfection, { ° P }.  E5:Deleuze:130a.                                            Calculus

{°JOY  is  an  increase  in  °Perpetuation.             E4:XLVII(3):220
Its intensity is proportional  to the increase.              Calculus
If the increase is negative, it is °SORROW.
If the increase is zero, it is BOREDOM.
If the increase is positive, it is °JOY.}                                  E4:Damasio

This definition holds for a RATIONAL person; not for an irrational person.

I:2.5c, Bk.VII:2512 , G:Notes 1 &2.

It is not the attainment, it is the attaining—for attainment soon
turns to boredom and then sorrowWaves, D:I.21c.

RH—  { Positive values  of °EMOTION }   a  feeling  or  state  of  great
delight  or  happiness;  as  caused  by something  exceptionally
good  or  satisfying.   delight,  happiness,  gladness,  exultation,
satisfaction,  rapture,  fullness of heart,  ecstasy, elation, excite-
ment,   cheerfulness,   glee,   gaiety,   exhilaration,   delectation,
jubilation, enjoyment, pleasure, contentment.  { Note how everyday
language expresses varying intensity with another word. G:Note 1, I:1.6, D:1.26b.}       Calculus:Fig.1(a)

[rejoice]

WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xxi, Reality Curve.
Knowledge, I:2.1, D:2.2, E1:Shirley:609,E4:Dijn:247- 8,  E4:XXVIII:205,
E5:XXV:260, E5:XXVIII:261, E5:XXXIII:263, E5:XXXVI(8):265, TEI:[19]:8, Bk.III:51-58,
EL:[34]:xxi, EL:[51]:xxvi, EL:[60]:xxix, Imagination, Reason, Intuition.

RH—  acquaintance  with  facts,  truths,  or  principles;  general
erudition;  familiarity or conversance, as by study or experience;
the  fact or state of knowing; clear and certain mental apprehen-
sion;  the  body  of  truths  or facts accumulated in the course of
time;  the  sum  of  what  is known: Knowledge of the situation is
limited.

OUP— Philos.  true,  justified  belief;  certain understanding, as
opp. to opinion.

[1250-1300; KNOW]

WikipediA, Reality Curve
°LOVE, °HATE, Charity, I:Table 3, Altruism, Introduction, ONE, Pity, I:1.7, I:1.13,
D:1.28b, D:1.33ff, E3:XIII(3)n:140, E4:XLIV:218, E4:Ap.XIX:240, E5:XVIIc:256,
TEI:[9]:5, TEI:[109]:40, Loves G-D , D1:HirLev 19:18, Bk.XIB:22175.

E3:De.VI:175

"Love is pleasure [JOY] accompanied by the idea {awareness}           Free Will
of  an  external  cause."    { mysticism }

{ °LOVE  is  belief  that  an  external object will              Need
increase  one's  °Perpetuation.  The intensity is    Calculus:6.2b & c
proportional  to  the  increase  hoped  for.           E4:XLVII(3):220
If the increase is negative (a decrease), it is °HATE.
If the increase is zero, it is INDIFFERENCE.                              Calculus
If the increase is positive, it is
°LOVE.}
G:Notes 1 &2, Immanent, D:1.34a, I:2.5c, E3:XVIII(8):143, E3:XLVIII:161.

{One  of  the  main  purposes  of  Spinoza's
"Ethics" is  to  teach  that you do not LOVE        Mark Twain
altruistically, but  out of self-interest  If the       An unfaced truth.
LOVE  be  rational it leads to an increase in
°P  for  both  the lover and that loved; if not             Martin Buber
rational, a decrease.}  Love of G-D, Deut 6:4-15. I:2.7d

Substitute the word 'need' for 'love' and you will understand 'love'
in its full dimensions. There is no 'altruism'.                                               Mark Twain

{ Yiddish  expresses the above beautifully by saying on leaving
"be for me (i.e. my sake), well."    In the analogy it would be like
the  lung  saying  to  the  heart  "be  well for my sake," knowing
full-well  that  it must in turn, send well-oxygenated blood to the             Power of Love.
heart. This is what I mean by "organic interdependence".}

RH— { Positive values of °FAITH }   a   profoundly   tender,  passionate       Calculus:Fig.1(b)
affection  for  another  person; a  person  toward whom  { or a thing
toward which love  is  felt; to need or require: Plants love sunlight.
passion,  ardor,  infatuation;  devotion,  adoration,  fondness,  ten-
derness,   affection,  warm  feeling,  sentiment,  emotion,  esteem,
admiration;   friendship,   amity,   brotherhood,   affinity, sympathy,
concord,  congeniality,  cordiality;  charity,  goodwill, benevolence,
solicitude.   { Note  how  everyday  language  expresses  varying  intensity with
another word.  G:Note 1,D:1.26b. }

OUP— (love-hate  relationship),   { everyday  language  D:1.26b },
an  intensely  emotional  relationship  in  which  one  or each party
has ambivalent feelings of love and hate for the other.

[to be pleasing]

Bk.XIV:1:xxv.   Bk.XII:286; Bk.XVIII:345;Bk.XX:189.
LOVE of G-D, Intellectual Love of G-DPragmatism, Mysticism, Altruism,
EL:[40]:xxii, EL:[59]:xxviii, TTP3:XII(61):172, E5:XVI:255, E5:XX(1):256, E5:XXXVI:264,       E5:XXXVI(6):265, Cash Value, D1:HirLev 19:18, HirPent: Gn 43:14. Bk.XIB:252155.

{"Love  G-D"  says  "be  aware  that  you  NEED  G-Deverything,
conceived as a Unity—for  your  very  own  PERPETUATION".
LT:L34(21):336.  Nutshell.  TTP1:III(12):44.

"G-D love you"  (or "G-D bless you," which is the same)  says:               Metaphors

1.   May  everyone  and  everything  contribute  to  your
perpetuation.

2.   May everyone be aware that they need you for their
perpetuation—and may you be worthy of such need.

"Thank G-D" (or "Please G-D," which is almost the same)  says:             Help of G-D

1.   May everyone and everything cause the thing to happen.

2.   May  everyone  be  aware  that  they need you for their
thing to happen—and may you be worthy of such need.

Cash Value—an  all-inclusive  organic  interdependence.  Analogy }

The  doctrine of diminishing marginal utility, as it was                Calculus:4.3a
enshrined  in  the  economics  textbooks,  seemed  to
put    economic  ideas  squarely  on  the  side  of  the
diminishing  importance  of  production  under  condi-
tions  of  increasing  affluence.   With  increasing  per
capita real income,  men are able to satisfy additional
wants.  These  are of a lower order of urgency.  This
being  so,  the production that provide the goods that
satisfy   these  less  urgent  wants  must  also  be  of
smaller (and declining) importance.

RH1. pertaining to a margin. 2. situated on a border, edge, or
fringe.  3. at the lower limits; minimal for requirements: marginal
ability.  4. written or printed in the margin of a page.  5. insignifi-
cant; minor: a marginal improvement. 6. having contact with two
or  more  cultural  groups  but  not fully accepted in any of them.
7. a. selling goods at a price that just equals the additional cost
of  producing  the last unit supplied. b. of or pertaining to goods
produced and marketed at margin: marginal profits.

[1570-80; < ML marginalis]

Neff, Bk.VII:23:6,Bk.XIV:1:xii, xv, xviii; Reality Curve
Mode, Shirley:2821, EL:[43, 46]:xxiv, E1:XV(1):55, E1:XXIII:65, E2:VI:86, Bk.VIII:94[3],
Neff - E5:L29[5](12):318, Infinite ModesBk.XII:187, Bk.XIV:1:224,Bk.XX:188.

E1:Def.V:45 {NeffEL:L04(04):282, Bk.XIII:113. }

G:Shirley's Bk.VII:236- Mode (modus)—

This  common  Latin  noun  means  what  it seems to mean—
mode,  way,  or  manner—and  is frequently used by Spinoza
with this unremarkable meaning. But, deriving from this, there
is  also  a  more  specialized  sense. G-D, who is pure power,
expresses himself in infinite 'modes' or 'ways.' So G-D is prior   Spinoza's PantheismG-d
to  all  his  modes,  and  a mode is defined as that which is 'in'
something  else and is conceived 'through' something else.
All
existence is summed up in G-D and his modes {G-d}. There is
nothing else.

Shirley's Bk.VII:237- Affection (affectio) and the verb 'to affect' (afficere)—

.... mode  is  defined  as  the  "affections  of  substance."
Mode  and  affection  are  similar,  but  do not cover the same
ground.   Mode  is  restricted to the "way" in which substance,
or  an  attribute  of G-D, finds expression, whereas "affection"
is  of  much  wider  application,  extending  to finite things. ....
{ Hence  I  conjoin  "affection"  and  "emotion";  man  being  a  finite  thing. }
] Bk.VII:2821emotion (E3:Def.III:130 = "affectus"; usage by Spinoza explained. [     Bk.XIV:2:1931.
E3:De.I(8):173.                            Hampshire:135

... When Spinoza says that "G-D is affected by a modification"           Desire
(EI:XXVIII(3):67)  he  does  not  mean  that  there is something
external  to G-D by which G-D is affected, for there is nothing             Love
external  to  G-D.    ..... he   means   quite   simply   that   G-D
'takes on'—expresses  Himself  in—a  particular  form or state.
{ Calculus:4.4 , E3:GN(2):185, E3:GN:2n }

RHa  particular  type  or  form  of  something:  Heat is a mode of
motion.  Philos.  appearance,  form, or disposition taken by a thing,
or by one of its essential properties or attributes.

[1250-1300; ME mod (e) (< OF) < L modus measured amount,
limit, manner, kind, tone]

Morality is to act so as to enhance G-Dthe infinite organism of which you are a part.

RHenhance 1. to raise to a higher degree; intensify; magnify. 2. to increase the value,
attractiveness, or quality of; improve. 3. to provide with more complex or sophisticated
features, as a computer program.

A classical myth is the personification of an abstraction. Abstractions are a society's
'world views' on Fate, Religion, Soul, Desire, Justice, Compassion, Sin, etc.

One day what we think now, will be considered a myth to future generations just as we
now consider the Roman gods and, perhaps, the Judaeo-Christain-Islamic God. Deus.

RH— a traditional or legendary story, esp. one that involves gods and heroes and explains a cultural practice or natural object or phenomenon.

[1820-30; < LL mythos < Gk mythos story, word]

WikipediAMy Definition.
Mysticism, Loves G-D, Deus, Rapture, Organic, PantheismG-d, Awareness, Kabbala,
Bk.III:260—Clay, Intellectual Love of G-D, PcM, Schorsch, I:2.7c, EL:[8]:ix, Martin Buber,         EL:[59]:xxviii, EL:[60]:xxix, Cosmic religious feelingE5:Dijn:258; E5:Deleuze:130a,             Definition, Neurons,Soul, Kabbala—Sefirot,

Mysticism  is  that INTERACTING TOTALITY  (a verb, a process, Being) that is more
than the sum of the parts of an organism.
It is the interacting, organic totality that is the 'more.' Without the interaction,
the parts are just door-stops, Examples.

Consciousness is merely that INTERACTING TOTALITY (a verb, a process, Being)
that is more than the sum of the body controls and thoughts. (If there are no body
controls and no thought; the organism is dead and no consciousness.)          Robinson4:156,169, FunctionalismComputer, Dr. Damasio.

TEI:[10]:5—                   < E5:Parkinson:285177 >

RH— 1. the  beliefs,  ideas, or mode of thought of mystics;  2. the
doctrine of  an  immediate  spiritual  intuition  of truths believed to              Mysticism
transcend ordinary  understanding,  or  of a direct, intimate union
of  the  soul with  God  through contemplation or spiritual ecstasy         E5:Wolfson:2:311
3. obscure thought or speculation.

OUP—mystic n.  1. a person who seeks by contemplation and self-
surrender  to  obtain  unity  or identity  with  or  absorption  into the              Mysticism
Deity or the ultimate reality: 3. or who believes in the spiritual appre-
hension of truths that are beyond the understanding.
mystic adj: 4. mysterious and awe-inspiring; 5. spiritually allegorical
or symbolic: 6. occult, esoteric; 7. of hidden meaning.

[F mystérieux f. mystère f. OF (as mystery 1) 1730-40]  Gestalt.

Mysticism is that INTERACTING TOTALITY that is more than the sum of its parts.

{Examples of RH(2) and OUP(1) above are:

1.  Imagine  that  you  and the room you are sitting in as one              Mysticism
corpuscle. Feel the organic interdependence of the Parts.              5P25

2.  Imagine  as  you  drive down a main arterial highway that
you  are  part  of  the  blood  traffic—where  each vehicle
has its assigned task for the perpetuation of your society.
When  you stop at a red light, feel you are a corpuscle of
the  blood  stopping  at  a  heart valve.  FEEL the organic          Spiritual
interdependence of the Parts.  (the Worm, EL:L15(32):290)

3.  Imagine  you  are  conducting  a large orchestra when that
perfect  chord  is  hit.  Feel  the  rapture  of  love that flows   Intellectual love of G-D
over  you—the need  for  every  player,  every  instrument,
the audience, the hall itself, the Universe itself. }                Isaac Bashevis Singer

ÆFrom Martin Buber's The Life of Dialogue; 1955, 2002 4th Edition; 0415284759; p.31:

The unity which the ecstatic experiences when he has brought all his former multiplicity into oneness is not a relative unity, bounded by the existence of other individuals. It is the absolute, unlimited oneness which includes all others. The only true accompaniment of such experience is silence, for any attempt at communication places the ecstatic back in the world of multiplicity. Yet when the ecstatic returns to the world, he must by his very nature seek to express his experience. The need of the mystic to communicate is not only weakness and stammering; it is also power and melody. The mystic desires to bring the timeless over into time he desires to make the unity without multiplicity into the unity of all multiplicity. This desire brings to mind the great myths of the One which becomes the many because it wishes to know and be known, to love and be lovedthe myths of the 'I' that creates a 'thee,' of the Godhead that becomes G-D. Is not the experience of the ecstatic a symbol of the primeval experience of the world spirit?

NAMES, TOPICS, AND HEBREW WORDS:

See Bk.XIII:387 for an "Index of Topics" in the Letters.
See Bk.III:284 for an "Index of Subjects".
See Bk.XVIII:386 for an "Index of Topics".
The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy{ An example of the Internet's potential. }

Analogy+Worm+Skin+1+Spiritual, Better °PcM+1Burden of TTP,  Cash Value,
CauseCommon Notions+1+2+3, Conjecture, Constitution+1, Consumption Curve,
Def. of a Created and Uncreated Things, Def. of the Emotions, Determinism+1+2+3
Divine Law, Dogmas of Universal Faith, Alcoholics Anonymous's Creed,
Eternity of the Mind, Eternal Truth, Fences+1, Fetish, Free Man, Games,
Garden of Eden, G-d at < 100% °P, General Def. Emotions, G-D-intoxicated Man,
Holidays, How to Live, Human Fiction & Universal Application, Idea of G-D,
Immortality+1+2+3, Intellectual Love of G-D, Interpreting Scripture, Judging+1+2+3,
Knowledge, Leap-of-Faith+1, Legitimate Desire, Letter List, Liberty, Love,
Man's Highest Good+1+2, Mind's Power over the Emotions, Martyr Laws,
Nature and Miracles+1, New in Spinoza, New Wine in Old Bottles+1+2,
Noahide Laws+1, Pagan, Parts and Whole, Reality Curve, Religion+1+2+3,
Right Way of Living+1+2,  Salvation+W+1, Scriptural History, Sexual Morality,
Doctrine of No Free-Will, Spinoza's Insights Embedded in Hebrew Words,
Spinoza's Excommunication Document, Spinoza's Condemnation by the State.
Spinoza's attitude toward Christianity, Spinoza and Christianity,
SpinozaFaith versus Philosophy (Reason)+1, Suggestions, Synthesizing Spirit and Materialism, Talmud+1+Torah+1+2+3+4+5+6, Ten Commandments; Exo 20:1, Deu 5:5,
True Good+1+2True Idea and TEI:L64, True Religion, Golden Rule,
True Virtue. What is New in Spinoza+JBY additionHarbinger+1.
Understanding human actions.
Finally: every headword in this Glossary.

Understanding Spinoza Topics:  Important, Motive, Analogy.

Spinozistic Insights Embedded in Biblical Hebrew Words.

WikipediA, Britannica.
Nature (Natura), Deus, G-Dand Nature, ST:Note 4, PantheismG-d, E4:II:192,
TTP2:VI(19):83.

First law of human nature, EL:[41]:xxiii, EL:[43]:xxiv, EL:L21(73):298.

E1:XXIX(8):68     Bk.XIV:1:254, 3995;Bk.XX:187.

Shirley's Bk.VII:2411  Nature (Natura)— ]Bk.XIII:1943[   {E1:Endnote 29:10, EL:Endnote Dijn:211.}

11.—  "This  word  is  used in two senses, Firstly, it is the             Durant:638
equivalent  of   'essence,'  the  sort of thing that a thing is,
and  is frequently coupled with 'essence' (essentia sive
that is natura).  Secondly, it can mean the whole of reality,        { The terms
as  in Deus, sive (that is) Natura'."   One should be aware       G-D and Nature
of restricting it to the the physical aspects of reality.             are interchangeable. }
When  it  is  used  in  the  second  sense,  I  give  it  a
Capital letter, although Spinoza—or his printers—were not
always consistent in this." {EL:L21(73):298}

From Blake McBride <blake@mcbride.name>
in a comment to spinoza@yahoogroups.com.

I believe natura naturata and Natura Naturans are one and             1P29:8
the  same thing  looked  at  from  two perspectives. Natura              Durant:637
Naturans  sees  things  from  the  perspective of eternity, a      Hampshire:147—Nature
single  whole  unrelated  to  time. Natura naturata refers to
the  same  thing  looked  at as a series of cause and effect
modes occurring in time.

Shirley's Bk.XIII:2763

"According to Spinoza, then, nothing but the whole of Nature
is free since all individual modes found in nature are caused
or determined by either nature directly or indirectly by nature         MarkTwain
through some other mode found there. {This says that all modes
are  parts  of  ONE organism. The cash value of positing it thus, is that                          Calf
one  part  cannot  be  abused without damage to other parts, because

they are all bound-up in an organic interdependence—slums
.}

RH— 4. the universe, with all its phenomena.

[1200-50; ME natur (e) < OF < L natura conditions of birth, quality,
character, natural order, world = nat (us), ptp. of nasci to be born
+ -ura - URE, ]     ] to grow [

Objective, E4:XVII:199, E4:XIX:202, E1:Shirley:609, Calculus:6.2b & c.

{True and false are objective terms. Good and bad are subjective       Durant:640, Ferguson
terms. A true subjective good (healthy life-style) increases                        Cash Value
Perpetuation and is objective. A false subjective good (substance             E4:Ap.III:237
abuse) decreases Perpetuation.}

RH— not influenced by personal feelings or prejudice; unbiased:
an  objective  opinion:  belonging  to the object of thought rather
than  to  the  thinking subject; impartial, unprejudiced, detached,
dispassionate, impersonal, unbiased, fair, just, uncolored, open-
minded.  (opposed  to  subjective;  personal, biased, prejudiced,
warped, unjust.).

OUP— external to the mind;  actually existing; real; dealing with
outward  things  or  exhibiting  facts  uncoloured  by  feelings  or
opinions; not subjective.

TEI:[33:3,Note1]:13(formalis)

(1) In  modern  language, "the idea may become the subject
of  another  presentation.''  (2) Objectivus  generally corres-
ponds  to  the  modern "subjective,'' formalis to the modern
"objective.'' [Elwes's note]

TEI:Shirley:2617   Formal and Objective Essence
(essentia formalis), (essentia objectiva)—

"What  makes  the terminology confusing is that in current
usage  the  term 'subjective'  is often employed to express
what  Scholastics  meant  by  'objective.'    But when ........
(Spinoza)  uses  the  term "objective" he is talking about a
mental  representation of a thing, the thing as an object of         Reality Curve
thought."   { Full quote }

WikipediA,
ONE, G-D, DEUS, Organic, Pragmatism, Universal Doctrine, Duty, Pagan, Popkin:71,
EL:[37]:xxii, E1:XIV.Coroll.:55, TTP2:VII(50):104, TTP3:XII(61):172, D2:Dijn:235,
Bk.X:62, PantheismG-d, Mysticism, Bk.XIB:247142{ sham },  D1:HirLev19:18.

WikipediA, Britannica.
Pagan , Idolatry , PantheismG-d, Holidays , Religion , ONE , Organic

{The  Pantheon  of deified figures of modern world religions is an
evolution of the Pantheon of Pagan gods. This is not pejorative (derogatory)
of either Pantheon. It is the evolution of the hypothesis of Religion         Read "Gifts of
to  purer  and purer Monotheism—from the fetish of a caveman to         the Jews" Pg. 53ff
an unadulterated Monotheism.}

RH— 1. one of a people or community observing a polytheistic
religion, as the ancient Romans and Greeks. 2. a person who is
not a Christian, Jew, or Muslim { sic }; heathen.

OUP— n. a person not subscribing to any of the main religions of
the world, esp. formerly regarded by Christians as unenlightened
or heathen.— adj. 1a. of or relating to or associated with pagans.
irreligious. 2. identifying divinity or spirituality in nature; pantheistic.

[1325-75; ME < ML, LL paganus worshiper of false gods, orig.
civilian (i.e., not a soldier of Christ), L: peasant, n. use of paganus
rural, civilian, der. of pagus village, rural district; see - AN 1]

°PAIN , °SORROW, Passive, E3:XI(2):138, EL:[55]:xxvii,

RH— mental or emotional distress; physical or emotional pain.
suffering,  distress,  anguish,  agony,  torment,  torture, ordeal,         Calculus:Fig.1(a)
hell,  misery,  grief,  woe,  heartache, heartbreak, sorrow, sad
ness, affliction, wretchedness, unhappiness.

[1250-1300; punishment, torture, penalty]

Britannica, WikipediA.   Bk.XVIII:369p24.                              E5:Bk.XIB:11041.
Pantheism, G-DG-d, ONE, Pragmatism, Schechinah, Panentheism, Omnipresent,
Bk.XVIII:32Bk.XIV:II:39, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Damasio, John Toland,
KabbalaDamasio,

EL:L21(73):298

{Pantheism  is  simply  awareness  that  all parts  are  bound             Durant:63985
into the organic interdependence of an infinite organism—G-D.
Think heart-lung interaction analogy.}

From Tape 1 - Prop. Hall's Lecture 4 - TB1:51—PantheismG-d.

If you begin to look at the world that way, then you can see a piece {a mode} of the divine, if I may put it that way, in an individual person or in a tree or in a sunset or in a set of events in history, all of it working out together. It's a kind of cosmic organism {intellectual love of G-D}, a kind of view {I-thee} in which the holy is an aspector a dimension of everything seen collectively. Notice, however, that whether we're talking dynamism or animism or polytheism or pantheism, at no point are we talking about one single, supreme 'other' that is external {transcendent} to ourselves and distinguishable from ourselves and against whom our lives stand in judgment, and all of that. That's yet to come, and we will be there shortly.

{Pantheism is true, good, if each thing is looked upon as a
part of the whole—G-D; holistically, with none of the faults
of  idolatry. Holism is the theory that whole entities, as fun-
damental  components  of  reality, have an existence other
than as the mere sum of their parts.}

Acosism  From Encyclopædia Britannica Online        Bk.XIV:1:298.

{In  the Analogy of E1:Note11, it cannot be said that any one part
of  you  is  you.}   Bk:VII:11—" no individual mode is itself a 'God';
nor is the total collection of such individual things God. G-D is no
mere aggregate that can be divided up or decomposed; yet, each           Indivisible
mode is a particular manifestation of G-D." {Nature- ^Conservation of matter}     Safir:170

From Audio Book Club

Spinoza  took  the  unorthodox view that G-D, an eternal &
infinite being, is identical with the world.  We are, therefore
ourselves  merely  parts  of  the Deity.  Human fulfillment is
Worm
possible,  he  believed,  only  by rejecting our finite, flawed
selves & identifying with the eternal within us.

{ In the analogy, would you say your nail-cuttings are you, or the
manifestation  of  you.   The  cash value  of positing that all are
part  of  G-D is that I must show respect to all; must help him to              Read"The
earn a dignified living; not out of altruism but out of enlightened           Affluent Society
self-interest. }
derogatory
{"Pantheism" is pejorative if it falls into Idolatry—making the infinite
finite. Spinoza's Pantheism—G-d is more in line with my emendation
of the following RH and OUP entries.}

RH— the doctrine that G-D is the transcendent {no, immanent} reality
of which the material world and humanity are only manifestations;
any religious belief or philosophical doctrine that identifies G-D with
the universe.
{ I prefer defining 'pantheism' as everything is in G-D;  not god in all,
(panentheism) because then God could still be transcendent in part.         Britannica
Analogy: My mind, heart, appendix, etc., are in 'me'. }

OUP— the belief  that  G-D is identifiable, {in part} with the forces
of  nature  and  with  natural  substances;  worship  that  admits or
tolerates  { the inclusion of }  all  gods  { into a grand Monotheism }.

[1725-35; < F panthéisme; pan- + Gk theos god]

WikipediA,
Paradigm, World ViewDuck or Rabbit, Paradigm Shifts, Category Mistake,
JBYnote1Useless CorrespondenceProf. Hall,

Generally, a model, template, or pattern. In recent usage, the frame of reference or perspective in which one operates, that determines how things appear and, hence, how one describes or explains them. (A way of taking experience, a particular way of spinning, the world). Spinning: Slang, a particular viewpoint or bias, esp. in the media; slant: They tried to put a favorable spin on the news coverage of the controversial speech.
Weltanschauung: A world view or "big picture"; possibly a "paradigm."
{n. German—a comprehensive conception or image of the universe and of humanity's relation to it.}

RH— par-a-digm.
1. a set of all the inflected forms of a word based on a single stem or root,
as boy, boy's, boys, boys '. 2. an example serving as a model; pattern: a paradigm of virtue.

[1475-85; < LL paradigma < Gk parádeigma pattern, der. (with -ma n. suffix) of
paradeiknynai to show side by side = para- PARA -1 + deiknynai to show]

Neff, Bk.XIV:1:xxiii.
Passive, Active, E3:11.2n:138,E1:XXIX(10):69, E3:I:130, E4:II:192,
E4:Ap.II:236, E5:IV(7):249, EL:[54]:xxvi, Calculus:6.2b & c.

E3:D.II:129 Bk.XIV:2:1931; Bk.XIX:218b.

"On the other hand, I say that we are passive as regards             Passions
something when that something takes place within us, or        Subjective, Objective.
follows  from  our nature  externally,  we  being  only  the
partial cause
{Loss of PcM}.       {Example—Your TV is broken               E4:XLVII(3):220
and  you  badly  want  it  fixed;  but  you  do not know how to fix it
or where to get it fixed. See active and E3:GN:2n.}."

{Activeunderstanding and having Peace of Mind;                                             Hampshire:135—affectus
Passive—not understanding with loss of PcM.}   Spinoza's Religion

E3:LVII(5):170

"Again,  pleasure  and  pain are passive states or passions,
whereby  every  man's power or endeavour to persist in his
being   is   increased  or  diminished,  helped  or  hindered."

RH— influenced, acted upon, or affected by some external force,
cause, or agency (opposed to active); receiving or characterized
by  the  reception  of  impressions  or   influences  from  external
sources;  produced  or  caused by an external agency; receiving,
enduring, or submitting without resistance; submissive.

WikipediA, Britannica
° PEACE-OF-MIND {°PcM = Spinoza's acquiescence of spirit or mind or soul}, EL:[60]:xxix, Bk.XIV:2:311.
RELIGION, TEI:Dijn:14, MarkTwain's Man's Sole and Master Impulse, Buddhism's Nirvana.

{°PcM  is being  °JOYFUL  (when knowing why is not necessary);        Calculus:6.2b
or  being  °SORROWFUL (say, losing an arm) but understanding
why, or  by a leap-of-faith acceptance saying "the understanding   leap-of-faith = hypothesizing
resides  in  the  infinite  intellect of G-D"cause(s) are knowable.}          Yirmiyahu Yovel
I:2.5c, Calculus:2.5, E5:II(1):248, E5:III:248, E5:XVIII.n:256, LT:L31(18):327, Determinism,
D:2.18, HirPs 14:7, Bk.XIV:2:3084, Help of G-D, Mitigation of Loss of Peace of mind

{ At the limit of knowledge, "a leap of faith" is equivalent to saying
"accept  the  proposition  as  a  working  hypothesis".   A  working
hypothesis  is  disproved when you find a contradiction. You then
have to fix the working hypothesis or totally discard it.}

{ If you are upset (lose PcM) by someone's conduct, think of this:

"I have made a ceaseless effort not to ridicule,
not to bewail, not to scorn human actions, but
Spinoza's Dictum
to understand them.TP1:(4:2):288.

With understanding comes °PcM. }

PcM  is  not a permanent state; but it constantly varies with time         Aesthetics
similar to C:Fig, 2  Note the difference in degrees in the following
dictionary definitions.}

RH & OUP— { Positive valuesfreedom  from anxiety, annoyance,
or  other  mental  disturbance;  a  state  of tranquillity or serenity;
silence;   stillness;   harmony,   accord,  concord,  amity, entente,
agreement,   pacification,   reconciliation,   calm,   ease,  repose,
placidity,  content,   composure.  { Negative values } disquiet; worry;
anxiety;   unrest;   turmoil,   agitation,   tumult,   disorder,   chaos.

[1125-75; pacem, acc. of pax; akin to PACT]

Perception, Conception, I:2.1, TEI: [19]:8, Bk.III:50, TEI: [50ff]:18, E2:XLIX(42):123.

{ The  Latin  word  that  Elwes  translates as "conceive" is often
translated   as   "imagine"  by  Curley  and  ShirleyImagination,
First Kind  KNOWLEDGE,  is  prone  to  errorE1:Shirley:609}

E2:Def.III:82

By idea, I mean the mental conception which is formed by the              E2:I:83
mind as a thinking thing.

Explanation.— I  say  conception  rather  than  perception,                Mark Twain

because the word perception seems to imply that the mind is
[      acted on by         ]
passive in respect to the object;  whereas conception seems

to express an activity of the mind.

RH— the act or faculty of apprehending by means of the senses
or  the  mind;  cognition;  awareness; a single unified awareness
derived  from  sensory  processes  while  a  stimulus  is  present;
immediate  or  intuitive  recognition  or  appreciation, as of moral,
psychological,    or   aesthetic   qualities;    insight;   discernment.
discernment,  awareness,  sense, faculty, apprehension, concep-
tion,  recognition,  cognizance,  comprehension,  consciousness,
detection, discrimination, judgment, understanding, grasp.

OUP— Philos.  the  ability  of  the mind to refer sensory informa-
tion to an external object as its cause.

[1350-1400; gathering in]

Neff                                                        Reality Curve
°PERFECTION (°P) =°REALITY;  includes, COMPLETION,
I:Table 1, I:1.4b, I:1.5b, D:1.8, D:1.14, D:1.30, E4:Prf.(32):190.            LT:L3421:336

"Pleasure is the transition of a man from a less to a                 Hampshire—purpose
greater perfection {°P}."                                     Perfection=Completion=Fulfillment

"Pain is the transition of a man from a greater to a less
perfection {°P}."

RH—  the  quality  of   being  or  becoming  perfect;  the  highest
degree  of  proficiency,  skill, or excellence, as in an art; the high-
est or most nearly perfect degree of a quality or trait.

OUP— {for the finite} – the act or process of making {more} perfect.
{The infinite}– the state of being perfect; faultlessness, excellence.

[1175-1225; completion]

°PERPETUATION (°P), Conatus, Secret, I:Table 1, ONE, I:1.4ff, D:1.7ff,
D:1.14, D:1.16, D:1.24, D:1.32, E4:XVIII(9):20, TEI:[109]:40, Bk XIV:2:178,
Increased or Diminished, Immortality+1, Peace-of-Mind, Mark Twain, Langer.

E3:VI:136E3:VII:136, E4:XXII(3)c:203.

Bk.III:250.     see
Pity, Charity, °LOVE, CompassionMercyAltruism, Misercordia, Grace,                  Sympathy, E4:L:22, Justice, Equity, Organic, Mark Twain.

{The  Hebrew  word  which is often  mis-translated as pity (com-
passion,  love,  is  better)  is rakh'-amStrong:7355—to  fondle,      HirPent:Gn 43:14
love, cherish, affection.  A related word is rekh'em, Strong:7358           Roots
—the womb (cherishing the foetus).  Based  on  this  etymology,      'I-thee' Relation
the  compassion,  forgiveness,  and  °LOVE  we  should feel for
each other  is  like  that  of  a  mother for the issue of her womb,        HirPent:Gn 43:14
perhaps  varying  in  degree  but  not  in  kind;  it  is  in  no way        Dawkins2:Genes
altruistic.

Another  related  word  is  raw-khawm', Strong:7360—a  kind of
vulture (supposed to be tender toward its young).  Imagine what
a  psychiatrist  could  do  with this connection; suffocating love.
E4:XLIV:218}   Bk.XIB:252155.

RH— sympathetic or kindly sorrow evoked by the suffering, dis-
tress,  or  misfortune of another, often leading one to give relief
or  aid  or to show mercy.  a cause or reason for pity, sorrow, or
regret.  to feel pity or compassion for; be sorry for; commiserate
with.

[1175-1225; ME pite< OF pite, earlier pitet < L pietatem, acc. of
pietas PIETY]

[1200-50; ME misericorde lit., pity, an act of clemency < MF < L
misericordia pity = misericord- (s. of misericors) compassionate
(miseri-, comb. form of miser pitiful, wretched + cord-, s. of cor
heart) + -ia - Y 3]

°PLEASURE, °JOY, Peace-of-Mind, Passive, E3:XI(2):138, E4:XLI:217,
E5:Endnote 18:3N, EL:[55]:xxvii, G:Notes 1 & 2,

E3:De.II:174EL:Wolfson:2:3084EL:[60]:xxix.

WikipediA, Britannica                                                                                                                                                      Bk.XIV:1:xxi.
Pragmatism, D:2.6c, I:2.5, BeliefDogma, Idea, Posits, Eternal Truth, Salutary,
C:2.5, TTP1:V(71):77, TTP3:XIV(39):185, TTP3:XIV(64):188, James:65, EL:[34]:xxi,
EL:[39]:xxiiiEL:[57]:xxviii, EL:[64]:xxxi, Quibble, Sham, Disclaimer, Andy, Darwin,
The Pragmatic Method, Scientific Method, Britannica's treatment of pragmatism.

TEI:[13:2]:6—     {Cash Value, Utilitarianism, Bennett.}

"Thus  he  is  led  to  seek for means which will bring him to
this  pitch  of  perfection{°P},  and  calls  everything which
will  serve  as  such  means  a  true  good."                                       E4:D1

The fundamental physical theory developed in the 1920s as a replacement for classical mechanics. In quantum mechanics waves {mind} and particles {body} are two aspects of the same underlying entity {substance}. The particle associated with a given wave is its quantum. Also, the states of bound systems like atoms or molecules {modes} occupy only certain distinct energy levels; the energy is said to be quantized.

WikipediA,
Rapture, Loves G-D, Deus, Organic, PantheismG-d, Spiritual, Grace.

Einstein's "cosmic religious feeling" is a form of Mysticism and the
intellectual love of G-D.

RH— 1. ecstatic joy or delight. 2. Often, <raptures.> an utterance             Feel it
or  expression  of  ecstatic  delight. 3. the feeling, esp. in religious
ecstasy,  of  being transported to another place or sphere of exist-
ence.

OUP—a ecstatic delight, mental transport. (in pl.) great pleasure        Isaac Bashevis Singer
or enthusiasm or the expression of it.

[1590-1600; RAPT + - URE; cf. ML raptura poaching, rapt]

°RATIONAL, Reason+1, °LOVE, Fear, D:1.9a, D:1.32a, E4:LIX(1):227, E4:Ap.V:237,
E4:Ap.VIII:238, E4:Ap.IX:238, E5:IV(7):249, Objective, Subjective, Good, E1:Shirley:609,           Rationalism, Holy.

{As infinite thing, G-D is always 100% rational. Finite things, G-d            Calculus:3.1
less than 100%, are at times rational and at times irrational. }

RH—  { Positive  values }  based  on  or  agreeable to reason; sane;
lucid.   sound,  reasonable,  logical; solid, wise, sage, sagacious;
judicious,  advisable,  perspicacious; credible, feasible, plausible,
compos mentis, in one's right mind, lucid, clearheaded, balanced,
normal, sound, responsible: { Negative values } irrational, unreason-
able, unsound, insane.   { Note  how   everyday  language  expresses  the
varying intensities with another word.  G:Note 1 }

[1350-1400; reason]

WikipediA, Britannica,
°REALITY= °PERFECTION, Includes, E3:(GN:8 & 9):185, E4:Prf.(32):190.
I define 'real' that which is a product (mode, G-d) of cause and effect.

From Bk.VII:2718 Reality (realitas) and Perfection (perfectio).              Durant:637

OUP— what is real or existent or underlies appearances;
(foll. by of) the real nature of (a thing).

WikipediA, Britannica, Bk.XIV:1:xxv.
Religion, Scripture, Belief, Pragmatic, Theology, Idolatry, Quibble,D:2.1, EL:L21:298,
TTP1:V(55):75, TTP3:XV(62):195, TTP4:XVII(49):219, Holidays, EL:[4]:vi, Bk.XXI,
E1:Wolfson:1:158, 216, Philosophy of Religion, Bk.XIA:6967Skepticism, G-D, Universal,
Dogma, Intuition, Philosophy/ReligionGovernment, Anti-Semitism, Psychology,
Mark Twain.

From Max Jammer's Einstein and Religion; 0691006997; 1999; p. 43.

Rejecting the traditional theistic concept of God, Spinoza denied the existence of a cosmic purpose on the grounds that all events in nature occur according to immutable laws of cause and effect. The universe is governed by a mechanical or mathematical order and not according to purposeful or moral intentions. Though he employed the notion of "G-D," Spinoza applied it only to the structure of the impersonal cosmic order and declared that "neither intellect nor will appertain to G-D's nature." He therefore denied the Judeo-Christian conception of a personal God. What the Bible refers to as divine activities are identified {metaphors} by Spinoza with the lawlike course of nature. G-D is the "infinite substance" having the attributes of extension and thought. G-D is devoid of ethical properties, for good and evil are only relative to human desires. What is commonly called "G-D's will" is identical with the laws of nature. People do not act freely in the sense of having alternatives to their actions; their belief in freedom arises only from their ignorance of the causes of the desires that motivate their actions. The ultimate object of religious devotion can only be the perfect harmony of the universe, and human aspirations must accept the inexorable dictates of the deterministic laws that govern life. {End}

The philosophical system of Spinoza, which defines G-D as a unique substance possessing infinite attributes of which we know only two—mind and body. (The Spinozistic Ideas I express are just my opinion; but I have studied Spinoza some sixty-odd years, still that does not mean I am always right. I trust any difference we might have will be due to our having different world views. Duck or Rabbit.) To start to understand Spinozism posit G-D—The One.

In Spinozism, personal relationship with G-D comes from positing that you are a part (a mode) of an infinite interdependent organism (G-D)—and it invokes the intellectual love of G-D. I, therefore, call Spinozism, Spinozistic Theism. Spinoza's use of religious  language.

{The Washington D.C. Post, June 5, 1998.
Discovery That Neutrinos Have Mass Could Rewrite Story of Cosmos

"These new results could prove to be a key to finding the holy
grail  of  physics, the unified theory"—the quest for deep, sim-
plifying  principles  that  underlie the profusion of objects and
forces   in   nature,   according   to  John  G.  Learned  of  the
University of Hawaii, a veteran  neutrino hunter in the Kamiok-
ande group.}

Sir Frederick Pollock's Bk.XII:69

From Chancellor Schorsch - Spinoza:

For  my  father,  Spinoza  represented  the  fullest and  finest ex-
expression
of  Judaism's  historic  quest  to understand the end-
less  diversity  of  existence  in  monotheistic terms.  On many a           Important
Shabbat  I  was  treated  to a discourse that eluded the grasp of
my inattentive mind.  I remember only the stirring intensity of his
fascination. Spinoza provided a haven in which the rational bent      A Living Tree
of  my  father's  mind  and  the  {Mystic,}  religious  hunger  of  his
heart could both find comfort.

......... Spinoza  is  thus  one  of  the  intellectual  founders  of
the  modern  liberal state, and also the first secular {?} Jew.  My
father  showed no interest in this side of the man, which was so
overtly  critical  of  the  Bible.   At  home  I  heard only about the
Spinoza of the Ethics.
{ and R. Hirsch }
....... What  separates  Spinoza  from  ibn  Ezra  is  the  grand    Graetz's Censure
theory  and  the  contempt  { by others }   for the Torah  that comes
with it.  Long  before  the sage from Amsterdam, Jewish scholars
had  claimed  the right to search out critically, with all the tools at         Torah
their  disposal,  the  historical meaning  of  the sacred text at the
time  of  its composition (what was called the peshat {explanation}).
A  spirit  of  empathy and  reverence  guarded  their  pursuit from        Mark Twain
turning destructive.

RH— a  set  of  beliefs  concerning  the cause, nature, and pur-
pose  of  the  universe,  esp.  when  considered as the creation
of a superhuman agency or agencies, usu. involving devotional
and  ritual  observances,  and often containing a moral code for
the  conduct  of  human  affairs; something a person believes in
and follows devotedly.

[1150-1200;  conscientiousness, piety = relig (are) to tie, fasten
(re- RE - + ligare to bind, tie; cf. LIGAMENT) + -io - ION; RELY=             Bk.XXV:[11]
to depend confidently; put trust in]

[1300-50; to bind fast, hold firmly. RE -, LIGAMENT]
{ I conjecture perhaps "to rebind the parts sundered when cast out
of  the  Garden of Eden;  to unite the nations into the United States
of the World." }

OUP—  the  belief in a superhuman controlling power, esp. in a
personal  God  or  gods  entitled to obedience and worship; the
expression  of  this  in  worship  a  particular system of faith and
worship.

WikipediA,
RighteousnessPiety, Justice, Charity,Organic, TTP1:V(18):71, TTP2:VII(63):105.

{The   Hebrew   word   for  righteousness,  justice  is  tseh'-dek,          Micah 6:8
Strong:6664—righteous,  integrity,  equity, justice, straightness.
The  root  of tseh'-dek  is tsaw-dak', Strong:6663—upright, just,
straight,  innocent,  true,  sincere; (the same root as for charity).
Based  on  this  etymology, righteousness is the Golden Rule in           Motive
working clothes—enlightened self-interest.  It  is  what one lung
does  when  the other collapses; it takes over, for its very OWN           Charity
survival; it is not altruism.}   TTP3:XIV(17):183.

RH— characterized  by uprightness or morality; morally right or
justifiable;  acting  in  an  upright,  moral  way;  virtuous.

[bef. 900; earlier rightwos, rightwis (remodeled with - OUS), ME;
OE rihtwis. See RIGHT, WISE 2]

Right Way of Living, How to live, Man's highest goodLoves G-D,
E3:GN:2NE4:xlvi:220E4:xlvi(3)n:232E5:X(3 to19):252.

The best we can do, therefore, so long as we do not possess a
perfect knowledge of our emotions, is to frame a system of right
conduct, or fixed practical precepts, to commit it to memory, and
to  apply  it forthwith to the particular  circumstances  which now
and again meet us in life, ....        Bk.III:253.

WikipediABritannica,                     Bk.III:14, 191, 214, 253.    SCR:Dijn:238-239,  E5:Wolfson:2:3112.
° SALVATION, °Peace of mind, °Blessedness, Bliss, Serenity, Religion, Immortality+1
All the above mean "to be saved from frustration by the LOVE of G-D."

TTP3:XV(94):198, E5:XXXVI(3)n:265, E5:XLII(1):270, E5:XLII(9):270, Bk.X:56.

E4:Ap.IV:237EL:Wolfson:2:3084EL:[60]:xxix.

RH— Theol.  deliverance  from  the  power  and  penalty of sin;
redemption.  saving  of  the  soul  from  sin, redemption, deliver-
ance;  election,  grace;  means  of  surviving, protection, lifeline,
mainstay, rock.  { antonyms } perdition, damnation, condemnation.

[1175-1225; SAVE]

WikipediA, Britannica,
Scripture, Religion, Holy, Obedience, Justice, Neff EL:L25(78):305, EL:[65]:xxxi,
TTP1:V(64):76, TTP1:V(71):77, TTP3:XIII(7):176, TTP3:XIV(8,9,&10):183,
TTP3:XV(94):198, E4:XXXV:209, TL:L34(21):337, Neff EL:L74(76):419.

WikipediA, Britannica, Introduction.
Self-interest , °LOVE, Altruism, E4:XVIII(15):201, E4:XXXIV:208, E4:XXXVII(18):213,
E4:LXXIII:235, E4:Ap.VIII:238, E4:Ap.IX:238, TEI:[14:3]:6, TTP4:XVI(10):201, D:1.33b,
EL:[57]:xxviii, EL:[61]:xxx, this-worldly blessedness, high-minded, self-serving, MarkTwain.

WikipediA,
Sexual Morality, Games, Lust, Self-interest, E4:Ap.XIX:240, E4:Ap.XX:240,

EL:[58]:xxviii, EL:[61]:xxx, HirPs 19:10.

{A sex act is sexually moral if the parties are able to provide for
the  possible  issue;  able,  both financially and psychologically
within the standards of their society. The motive for the society's
standard  is  what  best  provides  for  the  issue,  thus  best
perpetuating  that  society—virtue.

Society standards:

1.  Polyandry - in a marginal-subsistence society.
Many hunters are needed to support one child.

2.  Polygamy - in an unmechanized agricultural society.
Many workers needed on a farm.

3.  Monogamy - in a technologically advanced society.
One or two workers can support a family.

4.  Conjecture:

Short-term, renewable monogamous contract - In a
computerized  society.    With  cradle  to  the grave

security   a   family  no  longer  need  depend on  a
"breadwinner"; however, the psychological problem
remains.

Admittedly  the  above  needs  explanation.  I hope to do so as
I  complete  Insight2  and  Dialog2.}

RH definition of moral— of, pertaining to, or concerned with the
principles of right conduct or the distinction between right and
wrong;  {TTP2:Note 8}

[1300-50; ME < L moralis = mor- (s. of mos) usage, custom +
-alis - AL 1]

WikipediA,
Sin, Idolatry, Sacred, Commandment, Duty, I:1.9, I:10, D:1.10b, E4:XXXVII(31):214,
TTP1:1(91):22, Bk.XIII:347, LT:L32(19):331, Bk.XIV:1:4395LT:L36(23):347.

EL:L25(78):305

"But," you urge, "if men sin from the necessity of their nature,           Mark Twain
they are therefore excusable."                             { self-interest }           Ryle:20

{ The  Hebrew  word  translated  as  'sin'  is khateStrong:2399          LT:L3219:332
a crime, sin, fault. The  root  of  khate  is khaw-taw', Strong:2398             LT:L3421:342
—to  miss,  to err from the mark (speaking of an archer), to sin, to           Popkin:71
stumble.  Implied  in  this  etymology  is  that  there  should  be
"no praise—no blame" ever;  crime  and  scarlet fever  are  in  the
Ripley:309
same category.

The sinner is making an error; because he, if rational, does want           {The sins of
to perpetuate himself. Therefore his error is due to some disability         the fathers }
or lack of knowledge. This does not mean that society should not
protect  itself  as  from  a  crime—by incarceration, quarantine, or         Letter:3724:[7].

(better) by attempts to remove the causes (slums, disease, etc.),
or by retraining; re-programming the data base. Replace the word
Garbage Data Base.
'sin'  by  the  word  'error'.  Implied  in  this  etymology is that there
should be "no praise - no blame" ever; ''crime and scarlet fever are

in the same category''.
Bk.XIV:2:1843&5impotence; Bk.XIX:24831.

If a man enters an area where scarlet fever is rampant and catches it;
society first quarantines him to protect itself and then seeks to free
the area of scarlet fever and to cure him so that he can be well.
If a man is brought-up in a slum where crime is rampant
and he turns
to crime; society first incarcerates him to protect itself, and then should

seek to remove the slum and re-train him so that he can earn a decent
living.}

{ Aristotle "Nicomachean Ethics" Book I:
"Shall we not, like archers who have a mark to aim at, be more
likely to hit upon what we should?  If so, we must try, in outline
at least, to determine what it is, . . . " }  E4:XXVIII:205

RH— transgression  of  divine law.  any  act  regarded  as  such  a
transgression,   esp.  a  willful  violation  of some religious or moral
principle.  any  reprehensible  action;   serious  fault  or  offense, to
offend against a principle, standard, etc.

[bef. 900; (n.) ME; OE syn (n) offense]

E3:De.III(1):174Bk.VII:2923; Bk.XIX:25139, 25343.

"Pain { °SORROW } is the transition of a man from a greater                  Calculus
to a less perfection { °P }."

{°SORROW  is  a  decrease  in  °Perpetuation.            Calculus
Its  intensity  is
proportional to the decrease.
If the decrease is negative, it is °Joy.
If the decrease is zero, it is BOREDOM.
If the decrease is positive, it is °SORROW.}

This definition holds for a RATIONAL person; not for an irrational person.

G:Notes 1 &2, Bk.VII:25.

RH— { Negative values  of  °EMOTIONdistress  caused  by  loss,
disappointment, etc.; grief; expression of grief: muffled  sorrow.

woe;  misfortune,  loss,  trial, trouble, hardship, affliction, travail,
disaster,  catastrophe;  bad  fortune;  grieve,  weep, lament,
despair, mourn.  { Note how everyday language expresses varying intensity
with another word. G:Note 1, I:1.6. }

OUP— mental distress caused by loss or disappointment etc.;
lamentation.; mourn.

WikipediA,
Soul, Being, Consciousness, Mind=Soul, GDEpassivity of the soul, 5P27contentment of           mind, 5P27{contentment  of soul}, Prf:17disturbances of the soul, Britannica, Damasio.

WikipediA,
Spectrum, I:1.3b, I:1.6b, Calculus:Fig.1(a), C:Fig.1(b), Part and Whole, Transition.

E1:XIII:54

Substance absolutely infinite is indivisible. { E1:XV(40):58}

{ All the individual colors are a part of the color white.  Blood.}

RH— an  array  of  entities,  as light waves or particles, ordered
in   accordance   with  the  magnitudes  of  a  common  physical
property,  as  wavelength  or  mass; the band or seriesof colors,
together  with  invisible  extensions,  a broad range of varied but
related  ideas,  objects,  etc.,  that  form  a  continuous series or
sequence:   the   spectrum   of  political  beliefs;  { of  °EMOTION}.

OUP— the band of colours, as seen in a rainbow etc., arranged
in  a  progressive  series according to their refrangibility or wave-
length;  the  entire  range  or  a widerange of anything arranged
by degree or quality etc.

[1605-15;  appearance,  form, to look, regard; image, apparition
f. spece look]

Subjective, TEI:[33:3,Note1]:12(objectivus), E4:XVII:199, E4:XIX:202, Calculus:6.2b & c.

Irrational False Subjectiveness; liking junk food = Subjectivity.
Rational True Subjectiveness; liking healthy food = Objectivity.

RH— existing  in  the  mind;  belonging  to  the  thinking subject
rather  than to the object of thought . Philos. relating to or of the             Ferguson
nature  of  an object as it is known in the mind as distinct from a           Cash Value
thing  in  itself; relating to properties or specific conditions of the
mind  as  distinguished  from  general  or  universal  experience;
personal,  individual,  emotional,  partial,  partisan, biased, preju-
diced,  (opposed  to  objective;  impersonal;  external,  concrete,
tangible; impartial, unbiased.)
OUP—  Philos.  proceeding  from  or belonging to the individual        LeDoux
consciousness  or  perception;  imaginary,  partial,  or  distorted.
[1400-50; late ME:  pertaining to a subject {Passive} of a ruler]

TEI:Shirley:2717   Formal and Objective Essence
(essentia formalis), (essentia objectiva)—

"What  makes  the terminology confusing is that in current
usage  the  term 'subjective'  is often employed to express
what  Scholastics  meant  by  'objective.'    But when ........
(Spinoza)  uses  the  term "objective" he is talking about a
mental  representation of a thing, the thing as an object of
thought."    { See Full quote  < TEI:Parkinson:287196 >

Good and bad (evil), if not true, are subjective terms.   E4:Def.I:190,              Ferguson
True and false are objective terms.  Garden of Eden.  E1:Shirley:609

E4:VIII:195, Passive versus Active

WikipediA, Bk.VII:22:3,Bk.XIV:1:xiii.
SUBSTANCE , G–D, Mode, Bk.X:43, TEI:[33:3]:12,EL:[42]:xxiii, E1:XIII:54,
E1:XV(40):58, Sham, Infinite, Neff - EL:L04
(04):282, Neff - E5:L29(12):318.

E1:XIII:54

Bk.VII:223- Substance (substantia)

This  word  must  be  divested  of many of its common or
scientific  connotations.  Spinoza's  definition is rooted in
term 'G-D'
a  long  philosophical  tradition  in  which  the  term  'sub-
stance'  played  a  very  important  role.  For Aristotle the
word  had  several  connotations,  of which one signified
independent  and  primary  existence:  a  substance was
the   basic   metaphysical  individual  by  itself  (Aristotle,
Categories, 2-5).  Descartes  applied  this  notion  of pri-
mary  and  independent  existence  to  God  and claimed
that  God  alone  was the only entity that was really inde-
pendent  of everything else. Nevertheless, he went on to
permit  the use of the term ‘substance' to refer to created
entities  as  well  (Descartes,   Principles  of  Philosophy
I: 51-53).  It  is  the  Cartesian  theory  that  furnishes the
framework   within   which   Spinoza   develops  his  own
definition   and   theory   of  substance.  Spinoza  adopts
Descartes'  proposal to apply this term to G-D alone, but
he  strictly  adheres  to  this  usage {i.e. G-D alone}. The
main  theme  of the first book of the Ethics is the demon-
stration   that   there   is  one  and  only  one  substance,
G-D-or-Nature {Deus sive Natura}.    Spinoza's Daring.

{Although substance and its identities are infinite terms, E1:XIII:54;
we can deal with parts as explained in E1:XV(40):58.}

{Conservation  of  matter/energy  expresses  the  eternality  of
SUBSTANCE.}

RH— that of which a thing consists; the actual matter of a thing,
as  opposed  to  the appearance or shadow; reality; Philos. that
which exists by itself and in which accidents or attributes inhere.

OUP—  a reality;  solidity  (ghosts have no substance);  the real
meaning  or  essence  of  a  thing;  Philos.  the  essential nature
underlying   phenomena,   which   is   subject   to  changes  and
accidents.

Thing (res), External, Nature, TEI:[95]:35, E1:Def.II:45, E1:Def.VII:46, Reality Curve, Soul.

From Shirley's Bk.VII:249Thing {Object, Noun, Bk.XII:2191—that which persists in its existence}.

"This  is  the  regular  translation  of  'res,'  but  the  reader               Durant:639
should   be  warned that  Spinoza  gives  it  a  much more
extensive  meaning  than  is  normal in English.  He uses it             I—thee
to  cover  not only inanimate objects, but man, G-D, {ideas,
organisms, the Id, ego,} and sometimes occurrences."                       TTP1:CI(65)

{In short, every attribute and mode of G-D—all parts of G-D.}                       Pantheism

"Beyond," in some sense. In religious contexts, often "totally beyond" the level of human access. Other, holy, sacred; on the far side of a great gulf fixed. {Tape 1, Robinson3:63 }

"Transcendent" means about the same thing as having absolutely nothing in common. G-D and G-d (pantheism) are never trancendent because the totality of all things are in G-D. (If X affects Y; then Y affects X; If X cannot affect Y; then Y cannot affect X.) On the religious front, it is clearest in the medieval notion that humans are not in a position to say anything about God because of God's total "otherness."  Robinson4:121

RH— 1. going beyond ordinary limits; surpassing; exceeding. 2. superior or supreme. 3. (of the Deity) transcending the universe, time, etc. Compare IMMANENT (of the Deity) indwelling the universe, time, etc.). 4. a. (in Kantian philosophy) transcending experience; not realizable in human experience. b. (in modern realism) referred to, but beyond, direct apprehension; outside consciousness.

BOREDOM:   Instant of change from °SORROW to °JOY or vice versa.     Calculus:Fig. 2
INDIFFERENCE: Instant of change from °HATE to °LOVE or vice versa.

RH—  movement,  passage, or change from one position, state,
stage,  subject,  concept, etc., to another; a period during which
such change takes place.

OUP— a  passing  or  change  from one place, state, condition,
etc., to another.

[1545-55; a going across]

Wikipedia,
°UGLINESS , Calculus:Fig.1(b), °BEAUTY, I:2.5c, E1:Shirley:609

{°UGLINESS is dysfunction. Its intensity
is  proportional  to  the  decrease  in                    Aesthetics
°PERPETUATION caused.}

RH— { Positive valuesvery  unattractive or displeasing in appear-         Calculus:Fig.1(b)
ance;  disagreeable;  objectionable;  morally  revolting;  threaten-
ing   trouble  or  danger;  quarrelsome.  homely,  unattractive, un-
sightly,   unseemly,  unbecoming,  ill-favored, repulsive, hideous,
frightful, grotesque, monstrous; evil-looking.
{ Negative values }  beauty,  pretty,  handsome,  fair, lovely, comely,
attractive;  pleasant,  agreeable,  personable,  good-natured, lik-
able,  friendly;  good,  nice, sweet,  attractive;  promising,  auspi-
cious, fortuitous.
{ Note  how  everyday  language  expresses  varying intensity with another word.
G:Note 1 , D:1.26b. }

[1200-50; ME ugly, fearful, dreadful]

RH—the time rate of change of position of a body in a specified direction.

OUP—the measure of the rate of movement of an object in a given direction.

{ I use °VELOCITY to serve as an analogy for °EMOTION.  I:Table 1 }

WikipediA, Bk.XIV:1:xxiii, xxiv.
Virtue, Power of activity, EL:[61]:xxx, E5:XXV:260, E5:XLI(1):269.

Shirley's Bk.VII:2719— Virtue (virtus)

"Spinoza  equates this word with "power" (potentia).   This         Hampshire:179
usage  is  reflected  in  the phrase "by virtue of."   Spinoza
often uses the term  "virtue" in a moral sense, whereby the            E4:Wolfson:2:221
more  we  are endowed with virtue the more we act accord-
ing to reason, and hence attain happiness {betterPcM }."

E5:XLII:270Virtue (virtus)

Blessedness  is  not  the  reward  of virtue, but virtue itself;
neither do we rejoice therein, because we control our lusts,
but,  contrariwise, because we rejoice therein, we are able
to control our lusts.  { EL:[61]:xxx}

RH—  conformity  of one's life and conduct to moral and ethical
principles;  moral excellence; rectitude: a particular moral excell-
ence:  chastity;  virginity:  to  lose one's virtue:  a good or admir-
able   quality  or  property:  effective  force;  power  or  potency:
manly excellence; valor.

[1175-1225; acc. of virtus desirable male qualities, worth, virtue
= vir man (see VIRILE) + -tus abstract n. suffix]

WikipediA, Britannica , Bk.XIV:1:xvi, xxii, Bk.XIV:2:164 .
Volition, Free-will, Quibble, EL:[48]:xxv, EL:[52]:xxvi, EL:[55]:xxvii.
NeffEL:L02(02):276,   Determinism, TL:L22ff(74):299, E1:XXXII:70, A watch.

E2:XLIX:120—     {E2:Endnote 49:0, L2[9], L2[10], Durant65:177}

"There  is  in  the mind  no volition { free-will } save that . . . "                MarkTwain

"Free-will thus has no meaning unless it be a doctrine of relief . . ."     {Cash Value}

RH— the  act  of  willing, choosing, or resolving; exercise of the
will:  She  left of her own volition. the power of willing, choosing,
or deciding; will. a choice or decision made by the will.

[1605-15; < ML volitio = L vol-, var. s. of velle to want, wish
(see WILL 1) + -i- formative vowel + -tio - TION]

WikipediA,
World-View, Paradigm, Prof. Hall, Bertrand Russell, JBYnote1Useless Correspondence,
Duck or Rabbit, Theistic / Spinozistic-Theistic, Gestalt, Mark Twain, Religion, PcM,

Your world-view is your Religion; and a religion is not easily changed.   Stewart:280

Your world-view is your understanding of the worldunderstanding
lessens loss of peace of mind.

WikipediA,
Worship/Pray, Service, Learning, Pollock, Cash Value, Micah 6:8.

1. Tef-il-law'Strong 8605;  from paw-lal'Strong 6419, to judge.
It is a meditation on objectivity—connection of cause and effect.         Schorsch

From Hirsch's commentary on paw-lal' HirPent: Gen 20:7
..... means: to take the element of G-D's Truth, make it penetrate
all phases  and  conditions  of  our being and our life, and thereby gain
for ourselves the harmonious even tenor of our whole existence in G-D

2.  Tekh-in-naw', Strong 8467; from khaw-nan', Strong 2603,
to bend, implore,
plead; seek mercy, pity.
It is what is meant by "
There are no atheists in fox-holes."

RH—reverent  honor  and  homage  paid  to  God  or  a  sacred
personage,  or  to  any  object  regarded  as  sacred:   formal or
ceremonious  rendering  of  such  honor  and  homage, adoring
reverence or regard: to render religious reverence and homage,
as to a deity.

[bef. 900; (n.)   ME wors (c) hipe,   worthssipe,  OE worthscipe,
var. o f  weorthscipe; see WORTH { usefulness or importance }1, - SHIP]

JBY Endnotes

New  wine  in  old  bottlesE1:Wolfson:1:158, 1:216, Bk.XIB:230, Artscroll:455,
denial of Traditional idea.
Religion  is  an  hypothesis  that  constantly  evolves  to purer and purer
forms  of   monotheism.    As  an  example, study  how  Holiday  themes         Salvation[7]
were  re-interpreted  as   Paganism   evolved   into Judaism, Christianity,
and, I conjecture,  will  in  turn  (with other Religions of the world)  evolve     Dawkins:192:Genes[4]
into G-D"The Universal Religion {E5:Deleuze:130a.} and the United States of the World."

ES:N8, Dogmas of Universal Faith, Evolution of the concept of G-D results in the re-interpretation of Holidays.
See MW for the Hebrew words.
PAGAN                                       JUDAISM                     CHRISTIANITY               UNIVERSAL RELIGION
Encyclopædia Britannica Online— Grace AND Religion and Roman Religion.                                        A  CONJECTURE

CELEBRATION OF LIGHT.                                 LIGHTING THE MENORAH             CHRISTMAS LIGHTS                              LIGHTS
NOT LOSING THE SUN FOREVER.                                      & GIFTS                                      & GIFTS                                         &  GIFTS
Pagan Winter Solstice Festival -----> Hanukkah --------> Christmas------> Nature Renewal Day

RENEWAL AND PLANTING                                                   FREEDOM                          RESURRECTION                           FREEDOM FROM TYRANNY
Pagan Spring Festival ----------------> Passover ----------> Easter----------->  Man Renewal Day

TIME FOR                                                        DESCENT OF THE LAW                 DESCENT OF THE                 UNITED STATES OF THE WORLD
PHILOSOPHICAL REFLECTION                                            ON MT. SINAI                              HOLYSPIRIT                               CONSTITUTION DAY
Pagan Free Time Festival ----------------> Shavuoth----------> Pentecost-------> United Nations Day
Between Planting and Harvesting?
CELEBRATION                                                 HARVESTING BOOTHS                            FEASTING                          FEASTING and FORGIVING
Pagan Harvest Festival --------------> Sukkoth-----------> Thanksgiving-------> Thanksgiving
Britannica—progress                          ^

I  conjecture  that  the  holidays  of the coming Universal Religion will be    <    A conjecture
purged of literal miracles, imagery, and deified figures; all of which make
fences   (a  different  'world view' for expressing the "Oneness"  of  G-D)       Duck or Rabbit
between  neighbors  and  peoples  of  the  world.  These  fences  are  a        Hampshire:209f
violation  of  the  Third  Commandment, Deu. 5:8—"You  shall  not make
for yourself a carved image..."

It  is  the  increasingly  electronic-age-caused  unification  that will make
these fences (incompatible protocols) more and more onerous.
TEI:[14]:6. Bk.XIA:199; E5:Deleuze:130a.

The United Nations  is  today  in  the  analogous  position of The United            Runes:v
States  of  America at the time of its founding. The USA had to overcome
the power of individual states to achieve the power it has today. Likewise
The United Nations   will  likewise  overcome  the power of  the sovereign           Conclusion
states  in  time,  because  of  the  inescapable trend of history; those who
oppose it will become irrelevant.

Shirley's Bk.XI:42    From Introduction by  Brad S. Gregory  to
"Baruch Spinoza; Tractatus Theologico-Politicus"

The  quasi-rationalistic  definitions  Spinoza  sets  out in the TTP are          Metaphors

related  to  the  final  aspect  of  its  character  to  be mentioned here.

This might  be  called  its  linguistic  play  and manipulation.  Spinoza     Spinoza's Meaning

employs  many  of  the  same  terms  prevalent  in  traditional  Jewish     Spinoza's Religion

and    Christian    discourse,   such   as   "G--D,"   "salvation,"   "faith,"           term list

"miracles,"  "divine law,"   "help of G-D,"   "election of G-D,"   etc., but

he  twists  them  and  gives  them  new,  unorthodox  meanings  that       Re-interpretation

are  compatible with  his own  philosophy.  This  is  part of his persua-

sive  programme,  attempting  to  bring others around to his own point
{re-interpreted}
of view through the use of  familiar terms. Using the phrase of the late    Paradigm Shifts

philosopher  J. L. Austin,  one  could  say that  here  Spinoza  is busy

"doing  things  with  words":  not  only  using them to try and persuade
{re-interpreting }
his  audience,   but  also transforming accepted linguistic conventions.       Yirmiyahu Yovel

Spinoza's  contemporaries  were  aware  of  this  feature  of  his works.

John  Colerus  expresses  approval  at  the  way  Spinoza  begins  the

"Ethics",  "with  some  definitions  or  descriptions  of  the  Deity.  Who

would  not  think  at  first,  considering  so  fine  a beginning, that he is

reading  a  Christian  philosopher?But on closer examination,  "when

we  enquire  more  narrowly  into  his opinions, we find that the G-D of

Spinoza  is  a  mere  phantom"  and  that  Spinoza  "takes the liberty to

use  the  word  God,  and  to  take  it  in  a sense unknown to all Chris-

tians."    Mention   was   already   made   of  Philippus  van  Limborch's

complaint  that  Spinoza  in  the TTP uses religious terms in ways that

reveal  them  to be only  words—i.e., Spinoza was using familiar terms        Use justified
{re-interpreted }
in   unconventional   ways.     Besides  the  historical  and  philological

criticism  in  the  TTP,  Spinoza   lures and seduces, hoping the reader

will  suddenly  find  himself on the author's side via a bridge of custom-

ary  terms  used  in  unfamiliar  ways.

[End]  New wine in old bottles.

Cash (effective) Value. { See Pragmatism: Lecture II - What Pragmatism Means from Bk.X:28.}
Continued from verbal quibble { speculation }.

William James's Bk.X:xiv.  From Introduction by Bruce Kuklick.

James went on to apply the pragmatic method to the epistemological     Susanne K. Langer
{how we know ^ }
problem of truth.   He would seek the meaning of  'true'  by examining        Robinson4:172

how  the  idea  functioned  in  our  lives.    A belief was true,  he said,       Dawkins192:[5]
{a crutch }
if  in  the  long run it worked for all of us, and guided us expeditiously          E4:XVIII(7)
{jungle }
through  our  semihospitable  world.   James was anxious to uncover
{enlightenment                                                    {Efectivo in Spanish}           Popkin:71
what  true beliefs amounted to in human life, what their "Cash Value"       Garden of Eden

was,  what  consequences  they led  to.   A  belief  was  not a mental

entity  which  somehow  mysteriously  corresponded  to  an  external

reality  if the belief were true.   Beliefs were ways of acting with refer-        James's ONE

ence  to  a  precarious  environment,  and to say they were true was        Hampshire:202

to  say  they  guided  us  satisfactorily  in  this  environment.   In  this
D2:Pollock:223.
sense the pragmatic theory of truth applied Darwinian ideas in philos-     Spinoza's Meaning

ophy;  it made survival { °P } the test of  intellectual { LOVE } as well as

biological fitness.    If what was true was what worked, then scientific

truths  were  just  those beliefs found to be workable.   And we could
{ Salvation }
investigate religion's claim to truth in the same manner. The enduring

quality  of  religious  beliefs  throughout  recorded  history  and  in all

cultures  gave  indirect  support for the view that such beliefs worked.           Hall:3:16

James  also  argued  directly  that such beliefs were satisfyingthey

enabled us to lead fuller, richer lives and were more viable than their
{ Consolations }
alternatives.   Religious  beliefs  were  expedient in human existence,         Mark Twain

just as scientific beliefs were.  { EL:L22(74):299 }

[End] - Verbal quibble.

William James's Bk.X:56Free-will  { Volition, Bk.XIII[78]:347, Determinism,
Pragmatism, Quibble, Cash Value.}

[1]  Free-will thus has no  meaning unless it  be  a  doctrine  of  relief.
As such,  it  takes  its  place with other religious doctrines.   Between
them,  they build up the old wastes and repair the former desolations.
Our  spirit,  shut  within this courtyard of sense-experience, is always
saying to the intellect upon the tower: "Watchman, tell us of the night,
if it aught of promise bear," and the intellect gives it then these terms
of promise.

[2Other  than  this  practical  significance, the words God, free-will,
design,  etc.,  have  none.   Yet  dark  tho  they  be in themselves, or
intellectualistically   taken,   when   we  bear  them  into  life's  thicket
with us the darkness there grows light about us.   If you stop,  in deal-
ing  with  such  words,  with  their  definition,  thinking  that  to  be  an
intellectual finality, where are you?   Stupidly staring at a pretentious
sham! "Deus est Ens, a se, extra et supra omne genus, necessarium,
unum, infinite perfectum, simplex, immutabile, immensum, aeternum,       Susanne K. Langer
intelligens,"   etc.,—wherein  is  such  a  definition  really  instructive?
It  means   less   than   nothing,  in  its  pompous  robe  of  adjectives.
Pragmatism  alone  can  read  a  positive meaning into it, and for that
she  turns  her  back  upon  the intellectualist point of view altogether.
"God's  in  his  heaven;  all's  right  with  the  world!"—That's the real
heart of our theology,  and for that you need no rationalist definitions.
{ ^ Peace of-Mind }

[3Why shouldn't all of us, rationalists as well as pragmatists, confess
this?  Pragmatism,  so  far  from  keeping her eyes bent on the immedi-       Susanne K. Langer
ate  practical  foreground,  as  she  is  accused of doing, dwells just as
much upon the world's remotest perspectives.

[4 See then how all these ultimate questions turn,  as it were, upon
their hinges;   and  from looking backwards upon principles, upon an
erkenntnisstheoretische  Ich,  a God, a Kausalitatsprinzip, a Design,
Free-will,  taken  in  themselves, as something august and exalted
above  facts,see,  I  say,  how pragmatism shifts the emphasis and
looks forward into facts themselves.    The really vital question for us
all is, What is this world going to be?   What is life eventually to make
of  itself?   The centre of gravity of philosophy must therefore alter its
place.   The  earth  of  things, long thrown into shadow by the glories
of  the  upper ether, must resume its rights.   To shift the emphasis in
this  way  means  that  philosophic questions will fall to be treated by
minds  of  a  less  abstractionist  type  than  heretofore,  minds  more
scientific  and  individualistic  in  their  tone  yet  not  irreligious either.       Philosophy/Religion
It  will  be  an  alteration  in  "the seat of authority" that  reminds  one
almost   of   the   Protestant   reformation.   And  as,  to  papal  minds,
Protestantism  has often seemed a mere mess of anarchy and confu-
sion,  such,  no  doubt, will pragmatism often seem to ultra-rationalist
minds  in  philosophy.    It will seem so much sheer trash,  philosophi-
cally.   But  life  wags  on,  all the same,  and compasses its ends, in
Protestant countries. I venture to think that philosophic Protestantism
will compass a not dissimilar prosperity.

[End - James's pragmatism]

{Quibble, Speculation (conjectural consideration of a matter).
Transient or Immanent G-D, Freewill or No Freewill speculations are all
hypotheticalPragmatism, Dogma, I:2.8c , I:2.13b , Cash Value , Sham

A contradiction with the speculation (hypothesis) of a transcendent G-D:

By  positing  that  the  universe  is  not part of G-D: G-D's attributes
are  limited; thus His Power is limited—a contradiction. You can get
around  it  by  saying  He  manipulates  the  attributes  like  puppets.
Thus  either  speculation gives the same practical results.  Spinoza
and Einstein prefer the immanent G-D because a transcendent G-D,
among other things, makes for miracles; an immanent G-D does not.

A speculation (hypothesis) that there is freewill is more pedagogical in
that it establishes a logical basis for:
1.  teaching to make more effort.
2.  praise or blame (award or punishment}

Rabbinic Judaism  very rarely,  if ever, concerns itself with speculative     Talmud and Miracles
matters.  It concerns itself with the study of the law and its observance;            Runes9
much  as  a  lawyer  does  today.  It  posits  G-D as an axiom and goes
on from there with no further metaphysical discussion. A citizen accepts        Spinozistic Idea
his constitution as an axiom and goes on from there.

E-mail for clarification request, disagreement, or suggestion.

• josephb@yesselman.com

•

Since November 6, 1997   Glossary and Index hits.

SPINOZISTIC  GLOSSARY and INDEX
Revised: September 20, 2006

HOME  PAGE
"A Dedication to Spinoza's Insights"